Automotive is a vehicle, which is propelled by a machine in the vehicle itself (originally steam, then → electric motor, now almost exclusively by → combustion engine) and is not tied to a fixed track. The car consists of 2 parts, the chassis (undercarriage) and/or body (superstructure).
The motor is set in motion d/e electric motor m/d → starter. To prevent the engine from warming up, use is made of air or water cooling. The water is cooled by the outside air i/d → radiator. The → cardan gear makes it possible to drive the motor at different speeds. to give. Before starting the engine when the automobile is stationary, the connection between the engine and wheels must be cut off, for which purpose the engine is put into neutral. A hand and a foot brake are usually used for braking.
On modern cars, the foot brake also works on the front wheels. Starter and lighting are powered by the accumulators battery, which may or may not be charged to the alternator or engine of the car. — In 1885 the first usable a. was built by Daimler and Benz. Now comes i/d Ver. St. on every 5 in the Netherlands on every 85 inhabitants. an automobile for. (World total ± 36 000 000, of which 80% i/d Ver, St.) To control an a., is in Nederl. need a → driver’s license. In addition, each a. comes with a proof of number, which must bear the same number as the car, and, moreover, a letter, which denotes the prov. v. indicates origin.
The application of the steam engine to wagons brought the first automobiles. The rides with these cars were initially only technical experiments. The first attempt at construction of such a vehicle is in Cugnot’s name; he drove this automobile in 1770. The car reached a speed of 4 km per hour and could drive for fifteen minutes.
James Watt first applied a gearbox in 1785. Several steam cars were built in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The successful demonstrations of George Stephenson with his steam locomotive brought a flourishing of automobiles. Slowly people started to use the a. as a means of transport and the first problems of motorism arose.
Motoring. The use of automobiles was soon restricted by various ordinances. In some countries all horseless chariots had to be preceded by a man with a red flag to warn pedestrians and livestock. Several cities issued formal bans; other obstacles were the levying of very high tolls. In England it took until 1896 before motorism was given more freedom of development with the repeal of the Red Flag Act. The middle and end of the nineteenth century were marked by serious attempts at the construction of a useful explosive engine, which in 1885 both Carl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler succeeded almost simultaneously. The first solid rubber band was used by Thompson in 1867,
Until the World War in 1914, the automobile remained almost exclusively a sporty means of transport for wealthy people. However, the war proved the practicality of the automobile even under very difficult conditions. About 1920 American big industry under the leadership of Henry Ford began to make the automobile a means of transport for the people, so that instead of thousands, millions became motorists. The surprisingly rapid growth of motorism placed very high demands on the road network. It soon became apparent that widening the existing roads could not yet be made sufficiently suitable for motor vehicles. New roads were built, in some countries only accessible to automobiles (in Germany the Avus road near Berlin and the Cologne-Bonn automobile road,
The length of the road network in the Netherlands in 1932 was about 25,000 km, that of the entire world road network about 13,000,000 km. The number of automobiles in the Netherlands in 1932 amounted to approximately 118,000, of which 72,000 are passenger cars. In that year there were about 85,000 cars in the Netherlands Indies, about 35.6 million cars in the whole world. America has the largest number a. In the United States this number is 26.5 million, which means 1 car per 4.6 inhabitants. In 1932 this was 1 in 64 for the Netherlands, 1 in 584 for the Dutch East Indies. Motorism did not develop merely as a means of tourism.
Freight transport by car is becoming increasingly important and poses a serious threat to the railways. The bus company even extends to international bus lines. It appears that motorism is still only in the early stages of its development. With regard to the rules of the road and the liability of the motorist in domestic and international traffic, see Motor and Bicycle Act.
For Belgium, see Transport and Traffic. nortier. Layout and operation. The now generally known type is the result of innumerable improvements, through which the a. first slowly ascended to the present technical perfection. Basically, all cars correspond to the following description: the car consists of two parts: the chassis and the body.
The chassis consists of the steel frame in which the engine is mounted, with the associated parts, the drive mechanism of the wheels, the springs, axles, steering system, etc. The body, attached to the chassis, makes the car suitable for passenger or freight transport. The chassis consists of two long, steel U-beams, the longitudinal girders, interconnected by several cross-members, parallel or crosswise, which make the chassis into a rigid whole. Usually the two long chassis beams at the front and rear ends above the axles are bent upwards, in order to keep the center of gravity of the whole as low as possible, which is conducive to a quiet position of the car on the road and also improves the appearance. . At the front of the chassis, the engine is suspended vibration-free at three or four points,
Depending on the number of cylinders, there are practically 4, 6, 8, 12 and 16-cylinder engines operating generally on the four-stroke principle. The cylinders are “in line” one behind the other, arranged in one or more blocks, or in two V-shaped coupled blocks, the so-called V-motor. The cast iron cylinder block forms the walls of the cylinders, which are closed from above by the cylinder head bolted to the engine block. A piston can slide up and down in each cylinder. In order to obtain a gas-tight seal between the piston and cylinder wall, the first is provided with three or four piston rings, fitting in grooves of the piston, which press resiliently against the cylinder wall.
The piston rod, rotatably connected on the one hand to the piston and on the other hand to a crank of the crankshaft, changes the reciprocating piston motion into the rotary crankshaft motion, which must be carefully equilibrated. During the first stroke, the piston goes down. There for the inlet, resp. Emissions of gas at the top of the cylinder two valves, the inlet and exhaust valves, are fitted and during the 1st stroke only the inlet valve is opened, fresh gas mixture is drawn into the cylinder. During the following upward movement of the piston, the inlet valve is also closed, so that with this second stroke the gas is compressed (compressed, hence also: compression stroke). An electric spark ignites and expands the gas mixture, forcing the piston downwardly during the 3rd or 3rd cycle of work.
With the next upward movement the exhaust valve is opened, so that the burnt gas is expelled: 4th tact. If this gas is released directly into the open air, it is accompanied by violent explosions and there is a great risk of fire. For this reason, the burnt gas is first passed through a muffler (muffler), in which the gases cool and the voltage is reduced, so that they exit the muffler almost without sound. By using several cylinders, with non-simultaneous power strokes, a quiet, smooth-running machine is obtained. For the same purpose, a flywheel is also fitted to the crankshaft.
The engine is started up by turning the crankshaft until an explosion has taken place in one of the cylinders. In the past a pendulum was used for this, now generally an electric motor, fed by the accumulator, which meshes with a gear in a gear ring mounted on the flywheel (the so-called self-starter). The intake and exhaust valves are pushed open at the right time using the camshaft. This shaft is driven by the crankshaft with a 1 to 2 deceleration. As the name implies, this shaft carries cams which push the valve lifters upwards, which movement is in turn transmitted to the valves, which in the quiescent condition are held closed by springs. In order to avoid this valve mechanism and the noise associated with it, slide motors are constructed,
After first passing a petrol filter, the fuel coming from the petrol reservoir is finely atomized in the carburettor and mixed with purified air by an air filter. In the supply line from the carburettor to the cylinders through which the gas mixture flows during the intake period, a valve is provided, the throttle valve, by means of which the quantity can be regulated and thus also the speed of the engine. The fuel tank is usually attached to the rear of the chassis and thus located lower than the carburettor. The petrol is forced upwards by 1° pressure on the tank using a hand pump and exhaust gases; 2° to fill a small, high vacuum tank with the aid of the motor suction; 3° an engine-driven petrol pump.
The ignition of the compressed gas mixture is effected by an electric spark which jumps between the two electrodes of the spark plug projecting into the cylinder. The latter is screwed into the cylinder head. The required current is supplied by a high voltage magnet or by an induction coil fed from the battery. A rotating power distributor ensures that the spark jumps in the correct cylinder.
Since the ignition of the gas, however fast, always progresses for some time, at a higher speed it is an advantage to have the ignition take place just before the piston has reached its maximum position, so that the explosion moves the piston directly from the piston. highest position floats downwards. Too much pre-ignition, so that during ignition the piston is still in upward movement, causes the so-called knocking of the engine, which is of course very disadvantageous for the machine.
To cool the heated cylinders, they are surrounded by a double wall, the cooling jacket, in which water is contained. The heated water, comparatively lighter than the cold, rises up through a tube from the cooling jacket in the radiator placed forward on the chassis. This consists of a system of narrow channels, between which cold air is drawn in by means of a fan coupled to the motor. The warm water descends through the channels, cools and is returned from the bottom of the radiator to the cooling jacket. In contrast to this self-regulating so-called thermosyphon system, the circulation is often forced by means of a water pump. The temperature is often controlled by a thermostat.
The crankcase, the space in which the crankshaft is mounted and which connects to the bottom of the cylinders, is partly filled with lubricating oil, which is regularly cleaned by an oil filter. The lubrication of all bearings and of the valve mechanism is done under pressure by an oil pump, sometimes also partly with a splash system.
The coupling (embrayage) is the connection of the motor shaft with the further mechanism, and permits a gradual transmission of the movement, necessary for smooth driving off. In the older cone clutch, the flywheel is hollowed out conically on the side facing away from the engine. Fits a conical disc, slidingly mounted on the PTO shaft and independent of the crankshaft. In the rest position, this disc is pressed against the flywheel by a spiral spring and thus rotates with the latter. A foot pedal, the debrayage, allows the driver to push the disc backwards, breaking the connection. Raising the foot pedal slowly (“up”) gradually re-establishes the clutch.
In the modern plate clutch, the connection is obtained by friction (friction ) between a number of discs, partly on the flywheel, partly on the PTO shaft.
Since the engine power is dependent on the speed and precisely setting the car in motion and increasing the speed require a lot of power, the so-called gearbox has been constructed, whereby the crankshaft movement slows down in 2 or 3 different ratios via cardan shaft and swingarm is transferred to the wheels. For this purpose, wheels of different sizes are mounted slidingly on the clutch shaft in the gearbox. These gears can form various combinations with gears on the parallel mounted transmission shaft, which transfer the movement with the cardan shaft further to the rear axle. Direct connection between coupling shaft and cardan shaft is called “prise-directe”; once the car is moving on level ground, this is the usual transmission. The greatest deceleration is called: first gear; the next: second gear, etc., while the direct drive is also called top gear. The gearbox also permits reverse driving, since in a certain position of the gears an extra cogwheel is interposed, thus reversing the movement.
In the rest position, the two sets of cogwheels are not in contact with each other. The operation of the gearbox, the ‘shifting’, is done by the driver with the aid of the gear lever or handle. The latest cars are often equipped with a free-wheel behind the gearbox, which allows the wheels to turn faster than the engine, saving fuel when going downhill and eliminating the need to disconnect when changing gears. The free-wheel is activated with a separate switch. Since the rear axle is movable with respect to the chassis and thus also to the gearbox due to its connection with the springs, the connection is made by means of a universal joint or universal joint, which allows movement in all directions.
When transferring the movement to the wheels, it must be taken into account that in a bend the outer wheel has a greater distance to cover than the inner wheel. To this end, the rear axle is divided into two halves, both of which are mounted in the center under the car in the so-called differential drum and each carry a crown wheel there. A few small cogs on shafts (the so-called satellites) are arranged around this differential drum, which all engage in both crown wheels. This assembly, the differential, is rigidly connected to a large crown wheel, driven by a cog wheel on the cardan shaft or by a worm wheel. If the car drives on a straight road, the entire differential rotates as a result of the engine operation.
However, the satellites do not rotate on their own axis, as the load on the two crown wheels of the rear axle is the same. The latter are thus moved around at the same speed by the satellites. In a bend, however, the crown wheel, connected to the inner wheel, slows down; the satellites will now run over this crown wheel by rotating around its own axis. This movement, however, causes the crown wheel of the outer wheel to rotate faster, so the outer wheel also rotates faster, and precisely as much as the inner wheel is decelerated.
Both the rear axle and the front axle are connected to the chassis by means of semi-elliptical leaf springs and bushings or silent blocs, so that the impact of the wheels on the unevenness of the road is not transferred directly to the chassis, but damped. In addition, shock absorbers are often installed, which have the task of inhibiting sudden shocks of the wheels.
The wheels can be: 1° wire spoke wheels (light construction); 2° spoked wheels, consisting of two equal halves pressed together from steel, welded together and 3° the currently little-used, blacked-out or discus wheels. Tires are fitted around the wheels. With the exception of heavy trucks and buses, which sometimes still have solid rubber tyres, all cars are equipped with pneumatic tires, consisting of an air chamber, the inner tube and the protective rubber outer tire, with bead fittings in the rim. The tread of the latter is grooved to promote firm contact with the road.
Since the driver must be able to fully control the speed of the car at all times and to comply with the legal requirement,in this regard, each car is equipped with two independent brakes, hand and foot brake. Brake drums are arranged on the inside of the wheels, in which brake segments or shoes are fitted. During braking, these segments are pressed against the inner wall of the brake drum, while at rest they are held back from it by a coil spring. Often also a brake drum is fitted on the cardan shaft behind the gearbox, around which the brake shoes or brake band close.
The force exerted by the driver can be transferred directly (with rods or cables) or indirectly (the so-called servo system) to the brakes. With the servo device, a light pressure on the brake pedal is sufficient to brake with full force using air dilution, hydraulically or otherwise. The handbrake, which always works immediately, can be locked by a pawl pulled into a toothed sector.
In order to be able to go in any desired direction, the front wheels are mounted rotatably about vertical axles, the stub axles, at the ends of the front axle. In a bend, the inner wheel traverses a smaller circle than the outer wheel, while both must remain perpendicular to the radius of the circle to be traversed. The two front wheels cannot therefore remain parallel to each other when cornering. For this purpose, rotation of the steering wheel is transferred to one of the front wheels by means of a worm wheel and sectors of the sector shaft with a rod. A rod connected to both wheels at certain angles then transfers the movement correctly to the other wheel.
The chassis lubrication nowadays generally takes place under pressure, sometimes from one central point, from where the lubricating oil is fed through pipes to the rubbing parts.
The electrical installation comprises a motor-driven dynamo, which charges a 6- or 12-volt accumulator via the voltage regulator. This battery then supplies the power for the lighting, the horn, the starter motor, possibly the ignition, etc. See under Automotive lighting in this article.
In addition to the brake pedal and the debrayage already mentioned, the driver also operates the accelerator pedal, which is connected to the throttle valve; the steering wheel sometimes has a few levers for adjusting the gas supply, the lighting and the ignition. Depending on the make, mounted on the dashboard under the windscreen are speedometer, ammeter, indicating how much power is supplied to or by the battery, oil pressure gauge, sight glass, indicating the amount of petrol still available, and furthermore the necessary switches for lighting, direction indicators, ignition. , starter motor (also called next to the accelerator pedal), “choke”, etc. The choke makes it possible to temporarily introduce a petrol-rich gas mixture into the cylinders, which makes it easier to start the engine.
Special chassis are built for cars, intended for a large number of people (bus) or for transporting heavy loads (trucks and tractors), with a reinforced frame, often double rear wheels, or also with two rear axles one behind the other.
Electrically propelled cars are almost no longer built, because their scope is limited and the repeated charging of the batteries is very inconvenient. For transport over short distances with many stopping points, it is sometimes advantageous to build in electric motors in the rear wheels, so that the entire transmission mechanism can be dispensed with.
The French railways currently use a car-railcar, the Micheline, which runs on rails with special pneumatic tires, while a speed of more than 100 km is reached with an engine of ± 60 hp.
The body can consist entirely of steel or of a wooden frame, covered with steel. Below are some names of common types for passenger transport. Roadster, 2-pers. open car, with a folding seat in the back for 2 people, the so-called dickey seat; Torpedo of Touring, 4-7 pers. open car; Coupé, closed car for 2 people, with dickey seat; Convertible, different versions, can be used both open and closed; Coach, 4 pers. closed car with 2 doors, therefore the front seats can be folded down; Sedan, closed 4 pers. car with 4 doors. This last type is also called limousine, conduite intérieure; the glass partition between the driver’s seat and the rear compartment makes this a conduite intérieure séparée.
List of Acronyms Related to Automotive