The meaning of NATO, in Portuguese, is the Organization of the North Atlantic Treaty. As the two official languages of NATO are English and French, means that at the headquarters of the organization of the two acronyms, NATO – NATO are, respectively, North Atlantic Treaty Organization , and Organisation du Traité de l Atlantique Nord.
It is a strategic cooperation agreement and the military involving 29 countries in North America and Europe. NATO has a great influence in the political affairs of Europe and North America and is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. Currently, the Secretary General of NATO, is the Norwegian Jens Stoltenberg.
NATO has three structures:
- Civil Structure
- The Military Structure
- Organizations and Agencies
These three structures work together to defend the interests of the member countries and maintain a constant vigilance in the defense of these countries. Within the organizational structure and agencies, for example, there is a division of science and technology, the agency of communication and information, and the sector of civil preparedness for emergencies.
Within the military structure, there is a committee and military training groups: the Center for Operations of Allied Command and the Actual International Military.
And the civil structure is formed, primarily, by the representatives of the member countries, usually in the form of diplomats and ambassadors who uphold the interests of the member countries and discuss joint actions.
When it was created NATO
The base from where this organization comes to mind is the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in the United States in Washington, d.c. on 4 April 1949.
NATO is underpinned by article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, that article is the key of the whole treaty. According to this article, an attack on any of the member countries is an attack on all member countries. Soon, there will be a response of all. The answer will not always be military.
The article 4 of the treaty says that any member can make a query to the organization as a whole whenever it is deemed necessary, and to believe that its security and territorial integrity, and political independence are threatened.
An important requirement for a country is a member of NATO, is that investments in national defense are greater than 2% of their respective GDP.
The North Atlantic Treaty should be part of your structure to a treaty similar to one signed in Brazil in 1947: the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro. This treaty is based on the article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations. According to this article, the member countries of the United Nations have the right to defend themselves from armed attacks, individually or collectively. The Treaty of Rio de Janeiro is a mutual defense treaty, according to which the member countries should respond to possible armed attacks on any one of the signatories.The last time the treaty was invoked was in 2001, after the September 11 attack in the United States, but almost none of the Latin American country responded to the call.
The creation of NATO, who are involved
The founders of NATO were the countries that signed the Treaty of Brussels, plus the United States and Canada, in America, as well as Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland.
The Brussels Treaty was an agreement of a military nature made by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and the United Kingdom to defend against a possible attack on Europe by the countries of the communist bloc of the Soviet Union, led by Russia. However, to make front of the immense military power of the Soviet Union, these countries had to involve the United States. And then the other countries of Europe joined the treaty.
The objectives of NATO were, and still are, the defence of the member countries. Basically, this means that an attack on any one of the member states means an attack on all NATO member countries. But, contrary to the Treaty of Belgium, where the responses of the member countries should be military answers to NATO, the response of the countries do not necessarily have to be military, you can be strategic responses and, in some cases, military interventions of support.
The first and only time, to date, in that article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty has been invoked, occurred after the attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States. Thus, the NATO-led mission ISAF (International Security Assistance Force), in Portuguese the International Forces of Assistance and Security, which took place in Afghanistan. The mission fought against the faction as a terrorist of the Al-Qaeda of 2011 to 2014. At the same time trained the afghan army and is currently providing aid to the afghan government in the fight against the insurgency of Taliban.This military operation is the first that occurs outside of the area of coverage of the member countries of NATO. The military personnel of ISAF includes troops from 42 countries.
NATO develops, since 1994, at the suggestion of the United States, a program called Partnership for Peace, whose objective is the development of a relationship of trust between NATO member countries and the countries that belonged to the former Soviet Union, and also in other countries of Europe that are not yet members of NATO. Currently the Partnership for Peace account with 21 countries.
NATO has entered into other partnerships over the years. There are dialogues in progress for cooperation agreements between countries around the world and NATO. In South America only one country enters into an agreement with NATO, which is Colombia. In 2013, NATO and Colombia signed a treaty on information security.
Australia, New Zealand and the united States form an alliance called ANZUS, which has characteristics similar to those of NATO. Australia and New Zealand are international staff employees of NATO.
The countries founding members of NATO are:
- The United States
- The netherlands
- United Kingdom
With the passing of time, 17 other countries have become NATO members, being 4 of them over the period of the Cold War, starting with Greece and Turkey in 1952; the Federal Republic of Germany in 1955 and Spain in 1982.
After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, other countries, mostly Eastern European, joined the NATO:
- Czech republic in 1999
- Hungary in 1999
- Poland in 1999
- Bulgaria in 2004
- Estonia in 2004
- Latvia in 2004
- Lithuania in 2004
- Romania in 2004
- Slovakia in 2004
- Slovenia in 2004
- Albania in 2009
- Croatia in 2009
- Montenegro in 2017
France had been out of the organization for 30 years, from 1966 until 1996.
Article 13 of the North Atlantic Treaty says that any of the members can leave the agreement, provided that delivered your letter of notification of output with the 1 year prior to your departure.
NATO and Warsaw pact
It is said that the Warsaw Pact was a kind of counterpart to the east to the military alliance formed by the west, NATO. Both emerged at the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the Cold War. The call the Cold War received its name, for that neither of the two major world powers effectively attacked one another, but the world lived under constant tension of a possible nuclear war. This period lasted, according to some historians, from 1947 until 1991, when the Soviet Union collapsed.
The Warsaw Pact was held in may 1955, and had a goal very similar to that of NATO. This pact was made by the socialist countries of Europe, and the Soviet Union. In short, it was an agreement of mutual assistance in case of military attacks that could occur in any of these countries. It is said, however, that the larger goal was to legitimize the massive displacement of troops from the Soviet Union to the East European countries, that formed the border with the countries supported by the United States.This situation was a cause of great concern for the capitalist countries of Europe, and the threat of a nuclear attack was a seizure constant.
There was, at that period, a great fear in the west, that Communism to spread through Europe and put at risk the free countries.
Already at the end of the Cold War, in 1988 in Russia, the then leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, declared that the East European countries were free to govern themselves and that they were no longer obliged to comply with the Warsaw Pact. This event marked the end of the covenant, and consequently, the order of the power of communist Russia under the East European countries that were Russia to its prior release of the nazi regime that reigned during the Second World War.
With this, many of these countries have acceded to capitalism and eventually would join NATO. It is the case of Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary in 1999, also signed the North Atlantic Treaty. In 2004, 7 other Eastern European countries acceded to the treaty.