What is Finger?
By reviewing the etymology of the term dactilar, we arrive at the Greek word dáktylos,which can be translated as finger. Fingerprint, therefore, is an adjective that alludes to digital (which belongs to the fingers).
It should be remembered that the fingers are the articulated appendages in which the foot and hand of the human being end. Taking into account the above lines, the fingerprint is linked to these appendages.
The idea of fingerprint, in this frame, alludes to the impression left by the fingertip on a surface when it comes into contact with it. That’s why the notion is also known as fingerprinting.
This fingerprinting is made possible by the innate lines that all people have drawn on the buds. Lines are unique to each individual: no two patterns are repeated. This causes fingerprints to be used as a method of identification.
Another name given the fingerprint is dermatoglyph, and it is important to clarify that not only do humans possess these marks, but it is also possible to warn them in chimpanzees, gorillas, koalas and squirrels, among other species.
There are sensors that allow to recognize the fingerprint of a subject thanks to the ability of the device to read and store the footprints. This allows or denied access to a site or service, for example, through a system of permissions linked to fingerprints.
Access to a physical space can be controlled by a fingerprint recognition sensor. In the system it is possible to register and save the fingerprints of the person with authorized access. The system is then linked to an electronic lock that opens or keeps the door closed according to the result of the comparison of the current user’s fingerprint and the one who is allowed access: if someone with permission to enter places his fingerprint on the sensor, the door opens; however, if someone does so without authorization, the opening does not occur.
Usually, the finger used in people identification systems is the thumb, although the forefinger is used too. The first technique dates from the late nineteenth century, and was created by the French policeman Alphonse Bertillon; later, the anthropologist and also Croatian-born policeman John Vucetich Kovacevich made some improvements.
Let’s look at a classification of fingerprints below according to their characteristics and the medium in which they are located or recorded:
* visible: these are also known as positive,and these are the ones that the fingers leave on a surface when impregnated with dyes, natural or artificial, such as ink, blood or dust, among many other substances or materials that allow the generation of a mark after the contact of the fingers with some object. To enter this category, the fingerprint must be easy to see, without the need for research instruments;
* molded: these are those that are printed as a mold, in materials such as soap, grease or clay, among others that belong to the group of plastic matter;
* natural: fingerprints, the actual ones, which are in the hands of the aforementioned species;
* artificial : are intentionally reflected on a device that allows to study them.
The scientific discipline devoted to the study of fingerprints is called fingerprints, a term that can also be written with tilde in the second I. According to the experts in the field, the techniques belonging to this discipline are the most reliable for the identification of persons.