Dihybrid Abbreviations

The dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy ( RAE ) does not recognize the term dihybrid. However, the concept is used in biology to name the one or that that originates from the crossing of two organisms with dissimilar characteristics.

This crossing gives rise to a diploid being that, in its nucleus, has two sets of chromosomes that are homologous. The dihybrid gene pair may be on separate chromosomes or on the same chromosome.

A dihybrid, in short, arises from the crossing of races differentiated by pairs of allelomorphic characters. As the characters segregate independently, they can lead to the appearance of new combinations.

The crossing of two organisms with different characteristics generates a dihybrid.

Mendel and the concept of dihybrid

The notion of dihybrid was developed by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), father of Mendelian genetics and creator of the so-called Mendel’s laws. Through these postulates, which explain how the characteristics of parents are transmitted to offspring through genetic inheritance, the scientist showed, among other things, how dihybrids are generated.

Mendel’s Second Law, also known as the Law of Independent Segregation of Characters, states that when varieties of organisms that differ by two characters are crossed, each of the characters is transmitted independently. Therefore, in the formation of a gamete, each allele is separated from the other of its pair for the determination of the genetics of the offspring.

In this framework, a dihybrid arises when two monohybrids act independently. Mendel came to his conclusions by studying the crossing of yellow, smooth seeds with green, wrinkled seeds, analyzing the successive generations.

By monohybrid we understand a strain, organism, or individual that is heterozygous (formed when two sex cells of different genetic endowments unite) for only one particular trait, or for a single locus (a position on a chromosome that does not change ). and determines that of a genetic marker or a gene) or trait of the gene that is taken as a reference.

Gregor Mendel was the one who developed the concept of dihybrid.

The experiments

The first experiment that Mendel carried out, in fact, was the so-called monohybrid cross, mentioned above, for which he used two plants that coincided in their genetic endowment but had only one different character: the color of their seeds. The purpose of the scientist was to discover how later generations would inherit this character.

Regarding the dihybrid cross, we can say that it involves individuals heterozygous for two loci (the plural of locus, pronounced /loki/ ); in other words, their genotypes have two different alleles at each locus. If these are biallelic (as might be the case with A, a and B, b ), then AaBb is the dihybrid genotype.

Types of gametes generated by dihybrids

Dihybrids generate four types of gametes, and the difference between them is that each one has a different pair of alleles (for each loci of the pair, it gets one). In the example of the previous paragraph, the result would be the following: the production of gametes AB, Ab, aB and ab. Given that the distribution of the alleles occurs arbitrarily among the gametes, according to the law of independent segregation, for a locus X, fifty percent of the gametes will be of type X and the rest, of type x.

On the other hand, given that the combination of the alleles occurs independently, there is the same degree of probability that the A and a combine with the B and with the b, that is, that the four types of gametes previously exposed appear with equal frequency. When crossing two dihybrids, an offspring is obtained that, if it has sufficient dimensions, presents all the possible genotypes when uniting two gametes at random.

List of Acronyms Related to Dihybrid

Acronym Meaning
AHCC Adaptive Hybrid Concurrency Control
AHHPS Advanced Heavy Hybrid Propulsion Systems
AHPC Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector
AHS Advanced Hybrid System
AHA Algorithmes Hybrides et Adaptatifs
ASH Allele Specific Hybridization
ACHC American Canine Hybrid Club
ASH Amplifier-Sequenced Hybrid
AABH Anti-conventional-direction Asymmetric Branch-line Hybrid
ACGH array Comparative Genomic Hybridization
ATHOC ATM Applications over Hybrid Optical Fibre Coax (EU)
BORSCHT Battery, Over-voltage, Ringing, Signaling, Codes, Hybrid Testing
BAK Biohybrid Artificial Kidney
BASH Bridged Amplifier Switching Hybrid
BHW Brief Hybrid Workshop
CISH Chemiluminescent In Situ Hybridization
CISH Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization
COD-FISH Chromosome Orientation and Direction Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
CHILD Cognitive Hybrid Intelligent Learning Device
CHPS Combat Hybrid Power System
CHEV Combined Hybrid-Electric Vehicle
CTT-H Commander’s Tactical Terminal – Hybrid
CTTH Commanders Tactical Terminal Hybrid
CHAP Common Hybrid Agent Platform
CESH Comparative Expressed Sequence Hybridization
CGH Comparative Genomic Hybridization
CHMT Components, Hybrids and Manufacturing Technology
CODEHOP Consensus-Degenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers
CHS Conventional Hybrid System
CABH Conventional-direction Asymmetric Branch-line Hybrid
CASHES Convertible and Subordinated Hybrid Equity-Linked Securities
CDH CTIC Device Hybrid
DHLC Digital Hybrid Line Card
DH-PLL Digital-Hybrid Phase-Locked Loop
DMH Dynamic Multi Hybrid
EHC Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
EHV Electric Hybrid Vehicle
OTH-5 Five-Mode Omissive/Transmissive Hybrid
FISH Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
FISH-TSA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization combined with Tyramide Signal Amplification
FBH Fluorescent Biprobe Hybridization
FEH Ford Escape Hybrid
FCEH Fuel Cell Electric Hybrid
FHM Functional Hybrid Modeling
GISH Genomic in Situ Hybridization
GHC Global Hybrid Cooperation
HAH Honda Accord Hybrid
HHEV Human Hybrid Electric Vehicle
HAC Hybrid Adaptive Caching
HAPI hybrid adaptor phone interface
HARP Hybrid Ad-Hoc Routing Protocol
HARM Hybrid Adjustable Rate Mortgage
HAC Hybrid Aircraft Corporation
HAITI Hybrid Algorithm
HA Hybrid Algorithm
HAITI Hybrid Amplifier
HA Hybrid Amplifier
HART Hybrid and Real-Time Systems
HAIS Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems
HAL Hybrid Assistive Limb
HARP Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor
HARC Hybrid Automatic Rate Control
HATS Hybrid Automatic Test System
HAVC Hybrid Automatic Voltage Control
HBM Hybrid Bilayer Membrane
HBR Hybrid Block Repair
HBF Hybrid Bloom Filter
HBD Hybrid Booster Drive
HBMI Hybrid Brain-Machine Interface
HC3 Hybrid Capture 3
HCA Hybrid Channel Allocation
HYB Hybrid Circuit
HCS Hybrid Computation and Simulation
HCC Hybrid Concatenated Code
HYCON Hybrid Control: Heterogeneity and Complexity of Networked Embedded Systems
HCF Hybrid Coordination Function
HCCA Hybrid Coordination Function Controlled Channel Access
HC Hybrid Coordinator
HCPM Hybrid Cost Proxy Model
HCPMS Hybrid Cost Proxy Model
HCPS Hybrid Cutoff Priority Scheme
HDS Hybrid Decision Support
HDR Hybrid Detail Record
HDE Hybrid Diesel-Electric
HYUNDAI Hybrid Digital
HD Hybrid Digital
HDA Hybrid Digital-Analog
HDCT Hybrid Discrete Cosine Transform
HDT Hybrid Discretionary Trust
HDC Hybrid Driver Controller
HDPC Hybrid Dual Portable Computer
HDS Hybrid Dynamic Simulator
HDS Hybrid Dynamical System
HES Hybrid Earth Station
HEMI Hybrid EFIE /MFIE (Magnetic Field Integral Equation) Iterative
HE Hybrid Electric
HE-HMMWV Hybrid Electric High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle
HEV Hybrid Electric Vehicle
HEM Hybrid Electromagnetic Wave
HEC Hybrid Electronic Instrument Cluster
HEA Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm
HFM Hybrid Fault Model
HFC Hybrid Fiber Coaxial
HFC Hybrid Fiber Copper
HFR Hybrid Fiber Radio
HFRP Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Plastic
HFC Hybrid Fiber-COAX
HFFS Hybrid Flash File System
HFB Hybrid Fluidized Bed
HFPN Hybrid Functional Petri Net
HGGS Hybrid Gel Grip
HGG Hybrid Gel Grip
HGB Hybrid Genset Battery
HHD Hybrid Hard Drive
HIM Hybrid Impedance Matrix
HIRAM Hybrid In-Bore Rocket Assisted Motor
HITS Hybrid Income Term Security
HIMSS Hybrid Information Management Skills for Senior Staff
HIJP Hybrid Ink-Jet Printing
HIC Hybrid Integrated Circuit
HIVE Hybrid Integration and Visualization Engine
HIS Hybrid Intelligent Systems
HJ Hybrid Join
HLFC Hybrid Laminar Flow Control
HLW Hybrid Large White
HLMS Hybrid Library Management System
HMLT Hybrid Machine Learning Tools
HM Hybrid Magnetic
HML Hybrid Mail Language
HMS Hybrid Management System
HMD Hybrid Mass Damper
HMBP Hybrid Membrane Biofilm Process
HMIC Hybrid Microwave Integrated Circuit
HMC Hybrid Monte Carlo
HNS Hybrid Navigation System
HNN Hybrid Neural Network
HOST Hybrid Open Systems Technology
HOSC Hybrid Operating System Cluster
HOC Hybrid Operational Control
HOPI Hybrid Optical and Packet Infrastructure
HON Hybrid Optical Network
HOMER Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables
HOEIC Hybrid Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit
HOFF Hybrid Orbital Force Field
HPM Hybrid Permanent Motor
HPT Hybrid Phenomena Theory
HPEM Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model
XPS Hybrid Positioning System
HPM Hybrid Power Module
HPSI Hybrid Power Solutions, Inc.
HPS Hybrid Power System
HPT Hybrid Powertrain
HPS Hybrid Protection Scheme
HQMC Hybrid Quantum Monte Carlo
HRPO Hybrid Ray-Physical Optics
HROV Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle
HRC Hybrid Ring Control
HRS Hybrid Routing and Scheduling
HOIST Hybrid Silica Technologies, Inc.
HST Hybrid Silica Technologies, Inc.
HY-SPLIT Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectories
HSSR Hybrid Slot-Size/Rate
HSL Hybrid Solar Lighting
HSG Hybrid Suspended Gate
HSU Hybrid Switch Unit
HSD Hybrid Synergy Drive
HSDS Hybrid Synergy Drive System
HT Hybrid Tea
HTMT Hybrid Technology Multithreaded
HTPN Hybrid Temporal Planning Network
HTPE Hybrid Temporal Processing Elements
HTS Hybrid Test Set
HT Hybrid Theory
HTSF Hybrid Thin Slot Formalism
HTPN Hybrid Timed Petri Network
HTD Hybrid Time-Domain
HLS Hybrid Transmission with Layered Source
HT Hybrid Trunk
HTS Hybrid Trunk System
HVS Hybrid Visual System
HWB Hybrid Wing/Body
HWMP Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol
HWS Hybrid Wireless Satellite
HXD Hybrid XML Database
HCB Hybrid-Composite Beam
HYB Hybridization
HB Hybridization Block
HF Hybridization Factor
HFCV hybridized fuel-cell vehicle
HCF Hybridoma Cloning Factor
HGF Hybridoma Growth Factor
HSFM Hybridoma Serum Free Media
HOSP Hybrid-Organic-Siloxane-Polymer
HR-EPD Hybrid-Ring Equal Power Divider
HHV Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle
ITCHM IEEE Transactions on Components Hybrids, and Manufacturing (journal)
IHA Improved Hybrid Algorithm
ISH In Situ Hybridization
ICHIS International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems
IJEHV International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
ISHM International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics
LCHAO Linear Combination of Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
LHA Linear Hybrid Automata
LHCA Linear Hybrid Cellular Automata
LHCA Linear Hybrid Cellular Automaton
LHR Linear Hybrid Receiver
LHDI Lower Hybrid Drift Instability
LHR Low-Latency Hybrid Routing
MRH Mastic Roller Hybrid
MUSHA Metallic Uniframe Super Hybrid Armor
MHD Micro Hybrid Drive
MISFISHIE Minimum Information Specification for in Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry Experiments
MASHO Modelling Artificial Societies and Hybrid Organizations
MMCH Multi-Hybrid Mode Corrugated Horn
MOSH Multiprobe Oligonucleotide Solution Hybridization
NHO Natural Hybrid Orbital
PHEV Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle
PHT Parallel Hybrid Truck
PHDC Passive and Hybrid Downdraught Cooling
PIH Plug-In Hybrid
PHEB Plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses
PHEV Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
PHV Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle
PHEV Pneumatic Hybrid Electric Vehicle
PHP Power Hybrid Package
PFHM Protein-Free Hybridoma Medium
PHW Pure Hybrid Wrestling
QUEST QUerying for EnzymeS using the Three-hybrid system
RH Radiation Hybrid
RISH Reconstituted Influenza Sendai Hybrid
RISH Reflectance In Situ Hybridization
RHN Repeater Hybrid Network
RISH Riboprobe In Situ Hybridization
RHMP RNA Hybrid Mismatch Polymorphism
RISH RNA In Situ Hybridization
SHA Sandwich Hybridization Assay
SBH Sequencing By Hybridization
SHOM Sequencing by Hybridization on Oligonucleotide Matrix
SHARP Sharp Hybrid Adaptive Routing Protocol
SHIELD Silicon Hybrids with Infrared Extrinsic Long-wavelength Detectors
SBH Slotline Bowtie Hybrid
SHS Stochastic Hybrid Systems
SHV Super Hybrid Vehicle
SSRH Sus Scrofa Radiation Hybrid
SLH Switch-Linearity Hybrid
THS Tactical Hybrid Switch
TECHC The East Coast Hybrid Consortium
TISH Third-Strand In Situ Hybridization
T-HS-MRC Threshold-Based Hybrid Selection/Maximal Ratio Combining
TCH Toyota Camry Hybrid
THS Toyota Hybrid System
THL Trans-Hybrid Loss
TCH Transverse Compound Hybrid Method
TPH Turbo Parallel Hybrid
TSHR Two-Switch Hybrid Rectifier
VEH Véhicule Electrique et Hybride
VCHEC Virginia City Hybrid Energy Center
WDHS Wind-Diesel Hybrid System
WHSA Workshop on Hybrid Systems and Applications
WITCH World Induced Technical Change Hybrid Model
YOUTH Yeast Two-Hybrid
YTH Yeast Two-Hybrid
ZHR Zygotic Hybrid Rescue