Geography (from the Latin geographĭa, which, in turn, derives from a compound Greek term ) is the science that aims to study the description of the Earth . Likewise, the word can also be used to refer to territory or landscape.
Geography therefore studies the ecological environment, the societies that inhabit it and the regions that are formed when this relationship takes place. In other words, it analyzes the man -Earth relationship and the geographical phenomena of the terrestrial surface.
This science has several principles (or currents), stipulated by specialists throughout history. The principle of extension (or location of the fact ), for example, was announced by Friedrich Ratzel and consists of locating the geographical fact, which also makes it possible to identify the geographical phenomenon.
The principle of analogy (or comparison), analyzed by Carl Ritter, explains the relationship between a fact and a geographical phenomenon. We can also mention the principle of causality (or motive), studied by Alexander von Humboldt, who investigates the phenomenon based on evidence; the principle of description, defended by Vidal de la Blache, which makes it possible to decipher the geographical fact by analyzing its causality; and the principle of geographic observation, which makes it possible to visualize geographic phenomena based on the reference that originates on the surface or in space.
Regarding geographical traditions (the currents or lines of study existing in this science), the physical tradition (studies physical aspects, such as relief and vegetation), the chorological tradition (studies territorial systems, both natural and social spaces) stand out. , the ecological tradition (focuses on the interaction between human groups and the physical environment), the landscape tradition (analyzes natural and cultural landscapes), the spatial tradition (location and distribution of natural and cultural phenomena) and the social tradition ( studies societies and the environment they inhabit).
List of Acronyms Related to Geography