Russia Abbreviations

RU is the abbreviation for Russia, the 1st largest country in the world. Officially the Russian Federation, Russia is a country located in Eastern Europe and North Asia, bordering 14 countries – Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, North Korea, Norway, Poland, and Ukraine. Moscow is the capital city of Russia. Major cities include Moscow (population: 10,381,211), St Petersburg (population: 5,027,989), Novosibirsk (population: 1,418,996), Yekaterinburg (population: 1,349,761), Nizhny Novgorod (population: 1,284,153), Samara (population: 1,134,719), Omsk (population: 1,129,270), Kazan (population: 1,104,727), Rostov-on-Don (population: 1,074,471), and Chelyabinsk (population: 1,062,908).

Country Profile

  • Capital: Moscow
  • Language: Russian
  • Area: 17,098,246 km2
  • Population: 146,793,733
  • Currency: Russian ruble (RUB)
  • Time zone: UTC+2 to UTC+12
  • Calling code: 7
  • ISO 2-Letter Abbreviation: RU
  • UN 3-Letter Abbreviation: RUS
  • Internet TLD: .ru
  • State Government Website: gov.ru

Map of Russia

List of Russia Acronyms

The most commonly used abbreviations about Russia are RU which stands for Russia and RUB which means Russian ruble (Russia currency). In the following table, you can see all acronyms related to Russia, including abbreviations for airport, city, school, port, government, and etc.

RU: Russia

Abbreviation Meaning
ARIS Agrarian Russian Information System
ARSD All Russian Society of Disabled People
VNIRO All-Russia Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography
ABRO American Belarussian Relief Organization
ACTR American Council of Teachers of Russian
ANREF American North Russia Expeditionary Force
ARCU American to Russian Converter Unit
ARM American-Russian Matchmaking
ARLA Anglo-Russian Law Association
APRF Archive of the President of the Russian Federation
ARH Arkhangelsk, Russia – Arkhangelsk
ARTN Armenian-Russian Television Network
ARSSC Arsenal Russian Speaking Supporters Club
ACCR Association of Christian Churches in Russia
BVB Ballspiel-Verein Borussia 1909
BRO Baltics, Russia, and Other countries of the former Soviet Union
BAX Barnaul, Russia – Barnaul Airport
BITU Belarussian Independent Trade Union
BYB Belarussian Ruble
B2 Belavia Belorussian
BEL Belorussian
BSSR Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
BVB Bolzverein Borussia Dortmund von 1909
BRIC Brazil, Russia, India and China
BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
BTAA Business Travel Agencies Association of Russia
CRDP Canada-Russia Disability Program
CBAR Canadian Business Association in Russia
CSRP Canadian Society of Russian Philately
CJD Canons of Jesus the Lord, Vladivostok, Russia
CERES Center for Eurasian, Russian and East European Studies
REES Center for Russian and East European Studies
CRNC Center for Russian Nature Conservation
CBR Central Bank of Russia
CBRF Central Bank of the Russian Federation
CEK Chelyabinsk Airport, Russia
CPRF Communist Party of the Russian Federation
CSR Computer Science in Russia
CSR Computer Science Symposium in Russia
CCAS Computing Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences
CSCR Contemporary Standard Colloquial Russian
CSR Contemporary Standard Russian
DMSR Data Management System for the Russian segment
DPAC Discrete Programmable Automation Controller , Inc.; King of Prussia, PA)
ESEUR Education and Science Employees Union of Russia
SVX Ekaterinburg, Russia
SVX Ekaterinburg, Russia – Ekaterinburg
EARC Europe Africa Russia and Caspian
OVR Fatherland-All Russia
FITUR Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia
FJCR Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia
FA Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation
FRL Finland-Russia Line
FDPR Foundation for the Development of Parliamentarism in Russia
FPW Franco-Prussian War
FORO Friends of Russian Orphans
FORR Friends of the Russian River
FORF Future of Russia Foundation
GSRAS Geophysical Survey Russian Academy of Sciences
GUIS GLONASS Updated Information Service (Russia)
GBRS Great Britain Russia Society
GLORIA Grid Locators of Russia International Award
GRTT Group of Russian Troops in the Transcaucasus
HSFP-R Human Space Flight Program-Russia
ISR In Soviet Russia
ITAR Information Telegraph Agency of Russia
IPRAS Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences
CSR International Computer Science Symposium in Russia
IRMA International Russian Motorcycle Association
IRMPC International Russian Music Piano Competition
IRS International Russian Society
IRSS International Russian-Speaking Squad
IKT Irkutsk, Russia – Irkutsk
IJK Izhevsk, Russia
JRCC Jewish Russian Community Centre
JNRFC Joint Norwegian-Russian Fishery Commission
KGD Kaliningrad, Russia – Kaliningrad Airport
KEJ Kemerovo, Russia – Kemerovo
KHV Khabarovsk, Russia – Novy
KP King of Prussia
KOP King of Prussia
KPD King of Prussia, Pennsylvania
KRR Krasnodar, Russia – Krasnodar
KJA Krasnojarsk, Russia
LCRF Labour Code of the Russian Federation
LUCRECES Leeds University Centre for Russian, Eurasian and Central European Studies
GDX Magadan, Russia – Magadan
MARBC Mid-Atlantic – Russia Business Council
MERE Military Encyclopedia of Russia and Eurasia
MESRF Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
MIR Mobile Information Around Russia
MORE Mobility for Russian and European Studies
MIRA Monthly Index of Russian Accessions
MOW Moscow, Russia
DME Moscow, Russia – Domodedovo
SVO Moscow, Russia – Sheremetyevo
VKO Moscow, Russia – Vnukovo
MNEPR Multilateral Nuclear Environmental Programme for Russia
MNEPR Multilateral Nuclear Environmental Programme in the Russian Federation
MMK Murmansk, Russia – Murmansk
NFAR National Footwear Association of Russia
NLR National Library of Russia
NORS National Organisation of Russian Scouts
NRC NATO-Russia Council
NRS New Russian Standard
NJC Nizhnevartovsk, Russia – Nizhnevartovsk
GOJ Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia – Nizhniy
NARMA North American Russian Motorcycle Association
OVB Novosibirsk, Russia – Tolmachevo
OCREECAS Oberlin Center for Russian East European and Central Asian Studies
OEERIS Office of Eastern Europe, Russia and Independent States
OPR Old Prussian
OPERATE Old Prussian
ORU Old Russian
OREL Open Russian Electronic Library
PEE Perm, Russia – Perm
PKC Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia – Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
PES Petrozavodsk, Russia – Petrozavodsk Airport
PRDF Prosperity Russia Domestic Fund Ltd.
PRUSS Prussian
PROBLEM Prussian Blue
PAINTBRUSH Prussian Blue
PB Prussian Blue
PCS Prussian Claims Society
RPRF Republican Party of the Russian Federation
ROV Rostov, Russia – Rostov
RUS Russia
RU Russia
RS Russia
RCA Russia and Central Asia
RAEP Russia Australia Education Program
RBC Russia Business Council
RCGP Russia Corporate Governance Project
RUR Russia Ruble
RSEFP Russia Sustainable Energy Finance Program
RWD Russia Without Drugs
RCOP Russia, Central Europe, and Central Asia Orientation Course
RIC Russia, India, China
RJCN Russia-Japan Cable Network
ROUTER Russian
R Russian
RUS Russian
RU Russian
RAAS Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
RAMS Russian Academy of Medical Science
RANS Russian Academy of Natural Sciences
RAPA Russian Academy of Public Administration
RAS Russian Academy of Science
RAP Russian Accounting Principles
RAS Russian Accounting Standard
RSKS Russian Aircraft Corporation
RSK Russian Aircraft Corporation
RAAAD Russian American Alliance Against Defamation
RACH-C Russian American Cultural Heritage Center
RAMA Russian American Medical Association
RAD Russian Analytical Digest
RCES Russian and Central European Studies
REES Russian and East European Studies
REAP Russian and Eurasian Awards Program
RESIDENCE Russian and Eurasian Security Network
RES Russian and Eurasian Security Network
RAFF Russian Anthropological Film Festival
RASB Russian Arabian Stud Book
RACS Russian Association for Canadian Studies
RAEE Russian Association for Engineering Education
RAACI Russian Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology
RACA Russian Association of Communication Agencies
RATA Russian Association of Travel Agencies
RASA Russian Aviation and Space Agency
RAM Russian Aviation Museum
RBN Russian Backbone Network
RBCU Russian Bird Conservation Union
RBCA Russian British Cultural Association
RBN Russian Business Network
RCRC Russian Cancer Research Center
RCR Russian Chemical Reviews
RCS Russian Chemometrics Society
RCWS Russian Children’s Welfare Society
RCHI Russian Christian Humanitarian Institute
RCW Russian Civil War
VKM Russian Collection of Microorganisms
RCB Russian Commercial Bank
RCWP Russian Communist Workers’ Party
RCLC Russian Community Life Center
RC Russian Conscript
RCC Russian Cultural Center
RCHN Russian Cultural Heritage Network
RDSA Russian Dance Sport Association
RDC Russian Dedicated Center
RDX Russian Depositary Index
RDT Russian Dictionary Tree
RDLJ Russian Digital Libraries Journal
RDM Russian Doll Model
RDS Russian Dolls Search
REA Russian Education Academy
REDA Russian Electrical Dynamo of Arutunoff
REFL Russian Electronic Football League
REVA Russian Equine Veterinary Association
RECEP Russian European Centre for Economic Policy
REB Russian Export Blend
REBCO Russian Export Blend Crude Oil
RFC Russian Family Code
RFPA Russian Family Planning Association
RFE Russian Far East
RFN Russian Federal Navy
RFNC Russian Federal Nuclear Center
RFSA Russian Federal Space Agency
RF Russian Federation
RFSSR Russian Federation of Soviet Socialist Republics
RFU Russian Football Union
RFBR Russian Foundation for Basic Research
RFBR Russian Fund for Basic Research
RGUS Russian Grain Union
RGU Russian Grain Union
RGS Russian Ground Segment
RGR Russian Guild of Realtors
RHRN Russian Harm Reduction Network
RHN Russian Hill Neighbors
RSHMI Russian Hydrometeorological Institute
RIS Russian Imperial Stout
RNI Russian Independent Institute for the Study of Social and National Problems
RIA Russian Information Agency
RIN Russian Information Network
RID Russian Institute of Directors
RIAT Russian International Academy for Tourism
RIBN Russian Investment Banner Network
RJKF Russian Jedi Knight Forces
RJCS Russian Jewish Community School
RJN Russian Journal of Nematology
RJI Russian Justice Initiative
RKC Russian Kettlebell Challenge
RKF Russian Kynological Federation
RLC Russian Language Center
RLJ Russian Language Journal
RLA Russian Library Association
RLDP Russian Linux Documentation Project
RLJ Russian Livejournal Community
RM Russian Mafia
RMA Russian Managers Association
RMRS Russian Maritime Register of Shipping
RMRC Russian Market Research Company
RMA Russian Martial Arts
RMP Russian Massage Parlor
RMS Russian Mathematical Surveys
RUN Russian Meets Norwegian
RMSMC Russian Military Security Media Coverage
RME Russian Mobile Entertainment Company
RMBS Russian Mortgage-Backed Securities
ROMS Russian Multimedia and Internet Society
RNO Russian National Orchestra
RNTO Russian National Tourist Office
RNTA Russian National Toy Association
RNU Russian National Unity
RNE Russian National Unity Party
RUB Russian New Rouble
ROSS Russian Ocean Surveillance System
ROS Russian Orbital Segment
ROSS Russian Oregon Social Services
ROC Russian Organized Crime
RO Russian Orthodox
ROAC Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church
ROC Russian Orthodox Church
ROCA Russian Orthodox Church Abroad
ROCE Russian Orthodox Church in Exile
ROCM Russian Orthodox Church Musicians
ROC Russian Outreach Center
RON Russian Overlay Network
RPA Russian Planetarium Association
RPDU Russian Popular Democratic Union
RPBA Russian Portable Breathing Apparatus
RPMA Russian Pump Manufacturers’ Association
RRO Russian Ragnarok Online
RRDF Russian Reactor Dosimetry File
RRCA Russian Readings for Close Analysis
RREC Russian Regional Environmental Centre
RRJ Russian Regional Jet
RR Russian River
RRBC Russian River Brewing Company
RRRAUL Russian River Residents Against Unsafe Logging
RRV Russian River Valley
RRVW Russian River Valley Winegrowers
RRWA Russian River Watershed Association
RRWR Russian River Wine Road
RR Russian Roulette
RBL Russian Ruble
RSOA Russian School of Arts
RSPA Russian Screenprinting Association
RUSSIA Russian Segment
RS Russian Segment
RST Russian Segment Trainer
RWM Russian Shortwave Time Signal
RSBF Russian Small Business Fund
RSDP Russian Social-Democratic Party
RSSPMN Russian Society of Scanning Probe Microscopy and Nanotechnology
RSFSR Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
RSGB Russian Soviet Government Bureau
RSA Russian Space Agency
RSSI Russian Space Science Internet
RSPF Russian Sports Poker Federation
RSSE Russian Spring Summer Encephalitis
RSAU-MTAA Russian State Agrarian University-Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
RGA Russian State Archive for Social/Political History
RSCL Russian State Children`s Library
RSL Russian State Library
RSCM Russian Student Christian Movement
RTV Russian Television
RTR Russian Television and Radio
RTX Russian Traded Index
RTS Russian Trading System
RUBL Russian Ultimate Band List
RUJ Russian Union of Journalists
RUL Russian Union of Legates
RUY Russian Union of Youth
RVCA Russian Venture Capital Association
RVO Russian Virtual Observatory
RVT Russian Vocab Tester
RWT Russian War Tactics
RWON Russian Warbirds of Norway
RWF Russian Winter Festival
RW Russian Woman
RWP Russian Woman Primer
RYP Russian Yellow Pages
YLF Russian Young Leadership Fellows for Public Service Program
RYH Russian Youth Hostel
RZ Russian Zone
RACU Russian-American Christian University
RACU Russian-American Converter Unit
RACC Russian-American Cultural Center
RAISE Russian-American Initiative for Shelf-Land Environments in the Arctic
RCFS Russian-Chechen Friendship Society
RTSU Russian-Tajik Slavic University
RULG Russian-Ukrainian Legal Group
KUF Samara, Russia – Samara
SBRF Savings Bank of the Russian Federation
SCRF Security Council of the Russian Federation
SCRF Society of the Russian-Chechen Friendship
SECR Software Engineering Conference Russia
MVD Soviet/Russian Ministry of Internal Security
LED St Petersburg, Russia – Pulkovo
SARF State Archive of the Russian Federation
SCRF Supreme Court of the Russian Federation
SGC Surgut, Russia
TRJ The Russia Journal
TRAC The Russian-American Center
TJM Tyumen, Russia – Tyumen
UUD Ulan-Ude, Russia
ULY Ulyanovsk, Russia – Ulyanoysk
UES Unified Energy Systems of Russia
UCOR Union of Charitable Organizations of Russia
UJR Union of Journalists of Russia
URB Union of Russia and Belarus
URAA United Russian-American Association
USRBC United States – Russia Business Council
USRCCNE United States-Russia Chamber of Commerce of New England
USRVI United States-Russia Volunteer Initiative
URMG US -Russia Marketing Group (est. 1982)
VRIC Vietnam-Russia Intergovernmental Committee
VVO Vladivostok, Russia – Vladivostok Airport
VORWS Voice of Russia World Service
VOG Volgograd, Russia – Volgograd
WR White Russian
WCRJ World Congress of Russian Jewry
WSRP Worldwide Society for Russian Philately
YKS Yakutsk, Russia
YPS Yellow Prussiate of Soda

Geography

Russia is the world’s largest country and spans eleven time zones. The country has large plains in the southern areas, dense forests further north and tundra along the Arctic coastline. In the middle of the country, the Ural Mountains extend from north to south, forming what has become a natural border between Europe and Asia.

The country’s northern Asian part consists of the low-lying Western Siberian plain and the Central Siberian plateau. With the exception of the Arctic coastal areas and the southern plains, most of Russia has a typical inland climate, with relatively little rainfall and large temperature differences. Winters are long and cold, while summers are short and warm.

The environmental problems are great after a violent industrialization in the Soviet era. A large proportion of the country’s fresh water is unsuitable as drinking water. Extensive emissions from heavy industry and radioactive pollution from the 1950s and 1960s have made large areas uninhabitable, and several forest areas are threatened by uncontrolled harvesting and soil erosion.

History

In the 1000s BCE occurred the first state formation in Russia. Founded in modern-day Ukraine in the 8th century, the kingdom became a trading center that gained control of large Russian territories. After the Mongols invaded Kiev in the 13th century, the Moscow Principality grew. The empire expanded over the next 500 years, and in 1721 Peter baptized the Great Empire into the Russian Empire.

The monarchy continued for the next hundreds of years, until unrest and major social differences inward led to the Russian revolution in 1917 where the tsar was deposed. In the same year, the Communists (Bolsheviks) took power under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. A civil war broke out between the Red Arms of the Bolsheviks and the White Arms, supported by Britain, the United States, France and Japan. The Bolsheviks won the war in 1921, and in 1922 the Soviet Union was established.

Josef Stalin dictated the Soviet Union dictatorially from 1924 to 1953. Millions of people died in labor camps, were executed or exiled. The country was on the victorious side in World War II, but suffered enormous losses. In the postwar period, the Soviet Union fought a power struggle against the United States called the Cold War. It was expressed in the Korean and Vietnam wars, the Cuba crisis and the nuclear weapons armament. After several years of instability and economic decline, the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991. Russia has since undergone extensive reforms and has become the Soviet Union’s political, economic and military successor.

Society and politics

Russia is a republic where the president is elected for six years at a time. The president has great power as head of state and the military commander-in-chief, and appoints senior officials. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President, but is approved by the State Duma. The lower house The State Duma, together with the upper house, constitutes the Federation Council of the National Assembly.

The regions of the federation have varying degrees of internal autonomy, but in recent years the country has become more centrally controlled. Throughout the 1990s, reforms in social life, politics and economics were implemented. The country still faces challenges such as social and economic disparities between regions, widespread corruption, ethnic tensions, and an uncontrollable bureaucracy.

Vladimir Putin has dominated politics for two decades. He was prime minister in 1999, president from 2000–2008, prime minister 2008–2012, and president from 2012. The democratization process that started after the fall of the Soviet Union has stalled. Freedom of speech and press is limited and the choices are criticized by international observers.

Russia is a key player in international politics. The country is one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. In recent years, the country has made its mark by involving itself in Syria and annexing the Crimean Peninsula. Russia is also accused of influencing the presidential election in the United States and of assaults in the UK. All this worsens the relationship with the West.

Economics and Commerce

Russia introduced market economy after the Soviet Union’s planned economy and the transition led to major economic fluctuations. Extensive reforms could not prevent thousands of businesses from declining sharply, and poverty increased dramatically in the mid-1990s. Today, the country still faces challenges from the Soviet era, such as high unemployment and a uniform and outdated industry.

Nevertheless, Russia has one of the world’s largest economies. The country has vast natural resources and possesses the world’s largest gas reserves and some of the largest contiguous forest areas. The country is also a world leader in oil production, has rich mineral resources and extensive agriculture.

In 2014, financial sanctions were imposed on the country as a result of the annexation of Crimea, while oil prices fell sharply. This hit Russia very hard. The dependence on a small selection of export goods, such as oil and natural gas, makes the country very vulnerable to changes in the world economy. Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom and China are the country’s most important trading partners.

UN RPGs

The UN Association is offering a role-playing game for the 2019-20 school year in which students will try to resolve a conflict in the Security Council (Iran and the nuclear issue). Russia is a permanent member of the Security Council, and the sections that follow are information related to this game.

Foreign policy and relations with other countries in the Security Council

Russia is a great power and wants more influence internationally than it has today. Russia seeks to retain as much influence as possible in the old Soviet republics and therefore does not want them to become members of the EU or NATO. Russia is generally more skeptical that the UN will intervene on individual countries than the West is. The country is not afraid to stand alone in disputes within the Security Council, and is often followed by China if its objections are to national sovereignty, threats to incumbent regimes and what the country regards as exaggerated pressures for democracy and human rights.

Relations with China have improved noticeably in recent decades, and China is today one of Russia’s most important trading partners. Relations with the United States have gone up and down throughout history, and have gotten worse after Putin’s last re- election as president in 2012, and Russia’s annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in 2014. The countries are currently involved in an increasingly fierce nuclear disarmament confrontation, and are also very much disagree about the conflicts in Syria and Yemen. In 2018, Russia vetoed the UN Security Council against a US proposal to condemn Iran for breaking the weapons blockade against the Yemeni houti rebels. This veto was instrumental in the US withdrawing from the nuclear deal with Iran in 2015.

Relations with the UK are poor after several episodes in recent years of mutual charges of espionage and charges of attempted assassination of Russian defectors on British soil. Russia and France are basically far apart in the view of human rights and the question of what role the UN should play in the world. However, the countries have a relatively good dialogue on many other issues. France has sold some advanced military equipment to Russia, something the US and other Western countries are not very excited about.

Tips

Russia is one of the veto powers that signed the nuclear deal with Iran in 2015. The country is strongly critical of the US withdrawing from the agreement and believes the agreement must be preserved and continued. Russia does not yet participate in the Alternative Trade Mechanism (INSTEX) which aims to dampen the effects of US sanctions on companies that continue to trade with Iran. According to the institutes of INSTEX in the EU (Germany, France and the UK), Russian participation in the scheme could be crucial to the possibility of including oil sales – one of the key Iranian requirements to support INSTEX, and to abstain from further increase in the enrichment of uranium.

Russia has urged Iran to remain in the nuclear deal, and generally has a good relationship with the country. Russia is very grateful for Iran’s support for the Assad regime in the civil war in Syria, and does not want the West to exert too much pressure on Iran to withdraw from the regional conflicts in the Middle East. With regard to Syria, Russia is playing a broker role in Israel’s concerns that Iran’s presence increases the threat to Israeli security interests in the border areas against Syria.

Russia has played an important role in the development of Iran’s nuclear program, and especially in the years following the Cold War, many unemployed Russian scientists offered their services to the Iranian state. In the West, there is a perception that Russian contributions to the Iranian nuclear program in the years leading up to 2005 have largely contributed to the program also having a military dimension. In the years that followed, Western and Israeli intelligence also believes that it could track Russian experts’ participation in Iranian nuclear weapons projects. Russia rejects the accusations of contributing to this, pointing out that a large number of companies from both the West and other continents have been involved in the Iranian nuclear industry during the same period.

According to agreements with Iran, Russia has a long-term contract for supplying fuel to Iran’s only civil nuclear reactor (Bushehr). The agreement states that used fuel from Bushehr will be returned to Russia. When the nuclear deal was signed in 2015, Iran sent large parts of its low-enriched uranium (98%) for storage in Russia.

Russia was one of the original countries to propose the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East, as this was included as one of the premises for the lasting extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1995. Russia now believes that not all countries in the region need to be agree before the zone is created. Waiting for Israel’s demand that essential security issues in the region have to be resolved before the zone is created is termed “unproductive” and “peculiar.”

Russia believes the Middle East nuclear-free zone should be set up as part of the UN Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference in the spring of 2020. To meet Israel’s demand for clarification of regional security issues first, Russia proposes that a nuclear weapons-free zone conference should include a separate session devoted to regional security issues. Russia has urged other countries to adopt the same position.

Together with the United States, Russia is today the world’s largest nuclear weapons state, and it is estimated that the country has approx. 6850 nuclear warheads in its current arsenal. This is 85% fewer nuclear warheads than the country had during the Cold War. The reduction comes as a result of specific disarmament agreements signed bilaterally with the United States.

Although Russia expresses general support for the idea of ​​a nuclear-free world, the country, like the other nuclear weapons states, is in the process of modernizing its military program. This applies to the Russians, among other things, the development of so-called hypersonic nuclear weapons, which should be able to penetrate any missile defense that the United States and other countries may have in the future. Russia accuses the United States of having breached existing medium-range missile disarmament agreements (INF), and blames the West for this and other agreements being either breached or revoked.

At the top of this trend is also the United States’ choice of confrontation rather than negotiation with Iran’s nuclear program. There, Russia is very critical of the United States unilaterally withdrawing from the agreement.

Abbreviation Archives