The Feminism (Latin Femina, means “woman”) is a concept that arises in the nineteenth century, which developed as a philosophical movement, social and political.
Its main characteristic is the struggle for gender equality (men and women), and consequently for women’s participation in society.
Remember that our culture is largely based on a patriarchal society, based on male domination.
Man, in addition to being the most important member of the family, has long been the main focus. He is the one who has privileges over women, mistakenly called “weak sex.”
This ideological movement, led by women and advocating for equal rights, has spread all over the world. Today, feminist groups have grown considerably.
The story of female “empowerment” is not as old as it should be. In general, until the nineteenth century, women were seen as inferior to men, who did not have the same privileges that they, for example, read, write, study, war, or choose.
Given this, the female figure was built in a patriarchal society, where women’s attributions were restricted to household chores and the education of their children.
From an early age, girls were raised to help mothers with housework, getting married, and having children. In this context, they could not work abroad, while they had no access to politics or economics.
In the French Revolution (1789) the “ Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen ”, written in the year of the Revolution, was opposed by the “ Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Citizen ”, written by the French feminist Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793). in 1791.
In the document, she criticized the Declaration of Revolution, as it was only applied to men. It also warned of male authority and the importance of women and equal rights.
For this reason, the revolutionary was executed in Paris on November 3, 1793. However, her death, considered a landmark of feminism in the world, gave rise to several later feminist movements.
However, it was from the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century that this panorama changes substantially. Women are already starting to work in factories as part of the country’s economic strength.
So, gradually, feminist movements around the world were taking shape and increasingly fighting and gaining various rights claimed by women (right to education, voting, contract, property, divorce, equal pay, abortion, etc.).
In Western cultures, the feminist movement began to gain greater visibility from the twentieth century.
In more distant times it would be unthinkable to have a female president ruling the country, or even female figures acting and consecrated themselves in various fields: cultures, arts, economics, politics, etc.
Today, most women prefer not to have a family, that is, not to have husbands or children, a fact considered absurd before the nineteenth century.
Undoubtedly, existentialist French philosopher Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) was one of the greatest theorists and representatives of world feminism.
On this subject, his reference work is the essay entitled “ The Second Sex ” (1949), where he analyzes the role of women in society. According to her, ” No one is born a woman: she becomes a woman .”
The Machismo is a term for the set of sexist practices, which advocates the superiority of male over female.
Coupled with the ideology of the patriarchal system, chauvinistic practices or behaviors can be detected through phrases such as ” woman’s place in the kitchen “, ” this is man’s thing “. These sentences emphasize the inferiority of the female gender.
Importantly, machismo is not the opposite of feminism and is not only related to male behaviors. This is because many women are responsible for reproducing macho practices.