Ulan-Bator [“red warrior”], Mongolian Ulaanbaatar, until 1924 known under the name Urga [from Urguu, Mongolian “palace yurt”], capital and seat of the government of Mongolia, 1,350 m above sea level, stretches over 20 km on the right Orkhon tributary Tuul, between the Zezge-Gün-Uul (Bogd-Uul, up to 2 257 m above sea level) in the south and the Chentej Mountains (up to 2 800 m above sea level) in the northeast, (2018) 1.4 mill. Resident.
The city forms its own administrative district. With Soviet help, Ulan Bator developed after 1921, especially since the early 1950s, from a yurt town interspersed with monasteries and temples with widely scattered wooden and mud huts into a large city. Around half of the residents still live in simple yurt settlements on the outskirts. Ulan Bator is the political, economic and cultural center of Mongolia with the Academy of Sciences, the Mongolian State University (founded in 1942), the Technical, Medical, Agricultural and Pedagogical University, numerous private universities founded after 1990, the state archive and library, museums and theaters. The industry generates over half of Mongolian industrial production and includes companies in the food industry (especially meat processing), carpet, leather, felt, clothing, glass and porcelain, building materials production, as well as wood, metal processing and energy production. Transport hub, international airport.
To the v. a. Since the 1940s of the 20th century, streets with squares and green spaces have been laid out at right angles around the large Suchbaatar Square with a monument of the same name, which is located on the site of the former Lamaist main monastery, and is home to the Government Palace, the mausoleum for the co-organizers of the Mongolian People’s Revolution of 1921 D. Suchbaatar (* 1893, † 1923) and C. Tschoibalsan, the opera and ballet theater, the Central Palace of Culture with the Philharmonie, the main post office, the city administration, the stock exchange and the modern office building “Body Tower” (2004). The buildings of state and private universities, the Central Museum and the State Playhouse are nearby. Since the mid-1990s, the cityscape has been increasingly shaped by the newly built cooperative and private banks. Until 1990 only one of the four monastery complexes was inhabited by monks, one served as a religious museum; from the mid-1990s onwards, building and rebuilding monasteries with various functions (medicine, teaching and edification).
The city was founded in 1639 as a temporary (since 1778 permanent) monastery residence of the head of Mongolian Buddhism (“Lamaism”). Located on the trade route between Russia and China, the place quickly developed into an important trading center as well as the religious and administrative center of northern Mongolia; seat of the representatives of the Manchurian government since the late 18th century, seat of the Mongolian Autonomous Government from 1911–21. After the establishment of the Mongolian People’s Republic (1924), Ulan Bator became its capital.
- Abbreviation: UB
- Country: Mongolia
List of Ulaanbaatar Acronyms
The most commonly used abbreviations for Ulaanbaatar is UB which stands for Ulaanbaatar. In the following table, you can see all acronyms related to Ulaanbaatar, including abbreviations for airport, city, school, port, government, and etc.
|Ulaanbaatar||UBS||Ulaanbaatar Broadcasting System|