Best regards, the Fanta4 were already singing and we're right in the middle of today's topic of the Skoutz language laboratory: the abbreviations. In times when Twitter shortens the characters for us and we are becoming more and more lazy about typing anyway, in addition to word omissions (tomorrow noon instead of tomorrow noon), word shortening (in the evening instead of on that evening) and hybrid words (German- English instead of German-English) also come up Abbreviations are becoming increasingly important.
It is sometimes tricky to find out what is behind yolo (you only live once) or cr (currently reading), especially since it can also be different in the context, because one and the same abbreviation is used several times (IS can be harmless Industry standard mean or less harmless Islamic State; Nano is a writing challenge for authors in November, but for the rest of the world a tiny unit of measurement; When it comes to horsepower, some people think of powerful engines and others think of forgetful letter writers).
At Woxikon there is a very impressive list of more or less common abbreviations, which is very practical thanks to the search function and definitely deserves a place on the bookmark list.
But let's take a look at how to spell abbreviations correctly. When to decorate them with dots, when to add spaces between compound abbreviations or not, when and how to decline or correctly pluralize them.
By abbreviation (also somewhat scholarly abbreviation) linguists mean the shortened form of representation of an originally longer word or term. As already indicated, there are also a whole series of parts of speech that arose from the need for shortening:
But there are also the "real" abbreviations, with and without a period, which are often very common but have not acquired their own word quality: e.g. BGB, Dipl.-Ing., BMW, etc.
In addition to 6 rules, the Duden also provides a DIN (the "German Industrial Standard" 2340), which deals with the meaningful formation and use of abbreviations and abbreviations. The generic term of the short form is divided there into abbreviation, short word, substitute shortening and mixed shortening. This defines the position of the acronym in the system of terms more clearly. Principles and procedures are set up according to the aspects of benefit and uniformity of the short forms. In addition, principles for the inflection of short forms after a case distinction are given.
Of course, this is much easier in everyday life! Although it is not really clear due to a few tiresome exceptions.
Pronounced abbreviations have a period
Usually, but unfortunately not always, purely written abbreviations are marked with a period.
These are usually those that are pronounced in the long form when reading (however, an exception is the registered association, which is written and spoken in abbreviated form). In most cases, each word is abbreviated individually, provided with a period and then separated from the next character with a space (e.g. instead of eg or eg.). However, there are a few exceptions where (no one knows why) there is only a period at the end of the abbreviation:
Initial words have no dot
Standing terms that are formed from the first letters of the original terms and are usually no longer spoken in the long form can do without a period, e.g
Unfortunately not always, that's how you usually write GG (without a dot), but then you still speak the Basic Law (and not just since "gg" stands for "giggle" (to giggle)).
Sometimes the abbreviations are also pronounced like a normal word, although they are actually abbreviations from the first letters of the original term.
Units of measurement, points of the compass and currencies are abbreviations without a dot
With officially defined abbreviations of the units of measurement in science or also with currencies, the point is usually omitted:
Subject-specific abbreviations are usually written without a period
Compound abbreviations are written with several periods and a hyphen
If an abbreviation does not require a period, it is treated like a normal word for punctuation purposes. So you put a period (or another final character!) at the end of the sentence as usual.
If, on the other hand, there is an abbreviation with a period at the end of the sentence, then the abbreviation period is also the end of the sentence; there is therefore no need for a second point. However, question or exclamation marks must be placed in addition to the abbreviation period.
If you want to make it clear that an abbreviation is plural, you add the ending -s, regardless of whether that is the correct ending to say or where the plural would be expressed.
This is basically the user's right to choose, the dictionary allows both options (with and without -s), but recommends it at least for feminine forms, since the article in the singular and plural is the same there (die).
Note: Don't use the occasionally observed apostrophe, it's always wrong here (the GmbH's).
Sometimes (rarely!) the plural is expressed by doubling the letters.
In the singular there is usually no declension, for example a genitive S is added.
If it is helpful for understanding the text, for example to avoid reference difficulties or other misunderstandings, the Duden recommends putting the declension ending immediately after the abbreviation period ("Bs Tatbeitrag"). If such a point is missing, the ending follows immediately ("The sister of the OStRs").