The Racism is the belief that one race, ethnicity or certain physical characteristics are superior to others.
Racism can manifest itself at both the individual and institutional levels through policies such as slavery, apartheid, the holocaust, colonialism, imperialism, among others.
Although racism is associated with prejudice against blacks, it can manifest itself against any race or ethnicity, whether Asian, indigenous, etc.
Remember that the practice of racism in Brazil is considered an unenforceable crime, with a penalty of up to 3 years in prison.
Types of Racism
Let’s look at the main types of racism:
1. Individual Racism
Individual racism is expressed in individual discriminatory attitudes through stereotypes, insults, and rejection of a person who does not have the same ethnic characteristics as his own.
In this way we have expressions like “it ‘s black, but it’s clean” or “good Indian is dead Indian” that reveal deep contempt for an entire group.
2. Institutional Racism
Institutional racism is that exerted by institutions such as the state, the church, private and public enterprises, in which certain ethnic groups, such as blacks or Indians, are marginalized and rejected, either directly or indirectly.
One of the greatest examples was apartheid in South Africa, when blacks were forbidden to attend the same places as whites. Likewise, in the United States there were such laws that prevented blacks from studying in the same schools as whites, for example.
3. Cultural Racism
It results in the belief that there is superiority among existing cultures, in the broad sense that “culture” encompasses religion, customs, languages, among others.
Cultural racism has been used as a justification for colonizing and dominating territories since antiquity. In modern times this kind of racism may include elements of institutional and individual racism.
4. Communitarian Racism (Differentialist)
The concept of communitarianism gained strength in the 1980s, as opposed to individualism. This philosophy holds that community is more important than the individual itself.
Thus communitarian racism is linked to contemporary thinking and nationalism. He becomes racist as he always privileges his community over another.
As a result, communitarian racism addresses a group such as an indigenous village, a quilombola community, and not just specific individuals.
5. Ecological Racism (Environmental)
Ecological racism is detected when peripheral populations do not receive the same treatment as a central area.
An example of this is expropriation arbitrarily made to give way to dams or sporting event facilities. Or when a developed country company sells a product to a developing country that does not meet the same rules as its home country.
Also the destruction of the environment, affecting groups and communities based on unequal application of the legislation is considered as environmental racism.
One of the racist attitudes is social isolation.
Racist movements around the world
People called racists are based on the ideology of racial superiority. These ideas gained strength in the nineteenth century through Positivism and, later in the twentieth century, were harnessed by Fascism.
Even with all studies indicating that an individual’s race has nothing to do with intelligence or character, certain people still believe in it. The worst is when these people come together and start taking violent action against the groups they call “inferior.”
Some racist movements around the world today are the Neonazists and Skinheads. These groups harass, beat and kill people considered different, whether by race, color, culture or even sexual, religious, etc. preferences.
Racism against whites or inverse racism
It is important to clarify that racism happens within a specific historical context. Thus, not every insult – although always a reprehensible attitude – will be considered racist.
The fact that a white is called a “heart of palm” or “sour milk” is not characterized as racist. The reason is that in the modern and contemporary world whites have not been subdued or treated as slaves.
Likewise, they are not systematically treated differently in environments such as advertising, colleges, and workplaces in general.
How to fight racism?
Racism must be fought daily, first individually and then socially.
The most important thing is to recognize that we live in a racist society and this is very easy to prove by answering these questions.
- Brazil has almost 50% of the population that declares itself black: in the National Congress we have 50% of black parliamentarians?
- Are there 50% of black doctors in hospitals?
Thus, a self-assessment starting with our vocabulary would be interesting. We should take from our language expressions such as “denigrating”, “black with white soul”, “brunet hair brunet”, and many others.
Also, know other cultures, customs, people and religions. How many black or indigenous personalities do you admire? Having contact with different knowledge that we are used to, we open our heads and realize that humans are very similar.
Finally, let us remember that the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is celebrated on March 21st.
|ANSWER||Act Now to Stop War & End Racism|
|AFRA||Anti-Fascism Racism Action|
|ARDN||Anti-Racism and Decolonization Network|
|ARDI||Anti-Racism and Diversity Intergroup|
|ARIS||Anti-Racism Information Service|
|ANAR||Austrian Network Against Racism|
|CARF||Campaign Against Racism & Fascism|
|CAERS||Canadian Anti-Racism Education and Research Society|
|CEDRA||Centre d’Etudes des Discrimination, du Racisme et de l’Antisémitisme|
|CERA||Centre Europeen de Recherche et d’Action sur le Racisme et l’Antisemitisme|
|CARP||Cities Anti-Racism Project|
|CARP||Citizens Against Racism and Prejudice|
|CAR||Committee Against Racism|
|CURE||Committee to Undo Racism Everywhere|
|CREO||Counter-Racism, Equal Opportunity|
|DARRTS||Denver Anti-Racism and Reconciliation Team|
|DRIE||Dismantling Racism Institute for Educators|
|ERASE||Education, Research, Advocacy and Support to End Racism|
|ERACE||Eliminating Racism and Creating Equality|
|ERASE||End Racism and Sexism Everywhere|
|ERACE||Eradicating Racism and Colorism in Employment|
|ECRI||European Commission against Racism and Intolerance|
|EUMC||European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia|
|ENAR||European Network Against Racism|
|ERASE||Expose Racism and Advance School Excellence|
|FARE||Football Against Racism in Europe|
|FURD||Football Unites, Racism Divides|
|FAIR||Forum Against Islamophobia & Racism|
|FCR||Forum contre le Racisme|
|IRR||Institute for the Recovery from Racisms|
|ICSA||International Committee Against Apartheid, Racism and Colonialism in Southern Africa|
|LACAR||Latin American Coalition Against Racism|
|LICRA||Ligue Internationale Contre Le Racisme et l’Antisémitisme|
|MCARF||Merseyside Coalition Against Racism and Fascism|
|MRAP||Mouvement contre le Racisme et Pour l’Amitie entre les Peuples|
|MNCR||Mouvement National Contre le Racisme|
|NAPAR||National Action Plan Against Racism|
|NAAR||National Assembly against Racism|
|NOWAR||Network to Oppose War and Racism|
|NOWAR||Northwestern Opposing War and Racism|
|POWER||People Organized Working to Eradicate Racism|
|RFZ||Racism Free Zone|
|SAFER||Sandwell Approach Forum for Eliminating Racism|
|SCAR||Saskatchewan Coalition against Racism|
|SZR||School Zonder Racisme|
|SHARP||Sexual Harassment and Racism Prevention|
|SPAR||Skins & Punks Against Racism|
|SHARP||Standard for Harassment & Racism Prevention|
|STAR||Students and Teachers Against Racism|
|SOAR||Students Organized Against Racism|
|TPRS||Telephone-Administered Perceived Racism Scale|
|TCR||Tous Contre Le Racisme|
|UER||United to End Racism|
|WWAR||White Women Against Racism|
|WCAR||World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Tolerance|
|WCAR||World Conferences Against Racism|
|YAR||Youth against Racism|
|YRE||Youth Against Racism in Europe|
|YARN||Youth Anti Racism Network|