The anarchism is a political, philosophical and ideological system that corresponds to the absence of government at the end of the state and authority imposed by it.
The meaning of the term is of Greek origin “ánarkhos“, which means “without government” and “without power”.
At present, the term has acquired a negative and mistaken symbolism. It is often associated with disorder or the absence of rules, used as a synonym for chaos.
Anarchism arises in the nineteenth century. It was proposed by the English philosopher and politician William Godwin (1756-1836), who suggests a new political and economic system distinct from the capitalist. Capitalism has ruled since the Industrial Revolution.
For Godwin, society could live without the laws and restrictions of a government. In this way, it could achieve balance through the freedom of individuals representing the state of the ideal society.
Godwin proposed principles based on the end of private property and the division of social classes. It also suggested the end of the state and institutions in general. Management would occur through the absence of authoritarianism, oppression and domination.
Other thinkers will continue their studies and theories about Anarchism. Among them are: Max Stirner (1806-1856), Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), Leon Tolstoy (1828-1910), Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876), among others. In the middle of the twentieth century, there is the decline of the anarchist movement.
- Freedom and autonomy of individuals
- Collective property
- Self-management (form of government)
- Self discipline and responsibility
- Libertarian education
- Harmony and solidarity
Anarchism in Brazil
Anarchist ideas come to Brazil in the twentieth century. They were brought by European immigrants who favored the development of social movements, such as workers’ strikes in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Difference Between Anarchism and Communism
Anarchism and communism are quite different systems. Anarchism preaches the absence of the state, the elimination of any hierarchical order and defends libertarian organizations.
Communism is an economic system in which there are no classes and property is common. In communism there is the proposal of a government. In anarchism the absence of government is total.
Anarchism and Socialism
Anarchism is a current of socialism. The others are reformism and Marxism. Among the characteristics of socialism are equality of opportunity and the extinction of private property.
It is a trade unionist who was born in The Hague in 1872. At the time, the fifth edition of the congress of the First International of Workers was taking place.
In this doctrine, the worker is considered an important cell of society. Given this fact, it must be perfected. Anarcho-syndicalism is also considered a method of struggle.