The communism is a political and economic ideology contrary to capitalism. In fact, it is the negation of the concept of private ownership of capital.
Historically, communism would be the apex of a long evolution of humanity. Thus the predecessor regimes, in particular capitalism and socialism, would be responsible for increasing productivity.
Thus, it would allow a kind of social, political and economic ordering. In this way, inequalities responsible for the genesis of social problems such as violence and misery would be systematically abolished.
The term “communism” is formed by the Latin word “comunis” (common), plus the Greek suffix ” ism ” that designates this system of ideas or beliefs.
In more recent terms, communism can be considered as the final stage of socialism.
Socialist thinking postulates that communism would happen the moment the state was abolished. Thus would come a society in which riches were equally divided among all those who contributed their productive power.
It is also common to find the term to refer to Bolshevism in Russia, where modern communism was first implanted in the socialist form of government.
From this point of view, in the first phase, namely socialism, private property would be nationalized and the state managed by a political party.
In a second phase, the state would be abolished and power handed over to the people. There would be no more state governments or countries and no class division (which never really happened).
In practice, it would be a society in which the means of production (factories, farms, mines, etc.) would no longer be private, but public, in a world without the presence of the state.
We can then say that communism is a doctrine or ideology that aims to restore what is called a “natural state“.
This would be possible from the creation of a society without social classes. It would be based on a mode of production in which society would free itself from the alienation of labor.
However, by shredding the elites because it wants its end, communism faces obstacles raised by the ruling class at all times in which it arose.
It would therefore be the last culmination of the class struggle and the proletarian class struggle against the bourgeoisie.
On the other hand, this situation would be possible thanks to the increase in human labor productivity made possible by technology.
Distribution would no longer be unequal, which would allow for general welfare in the context of full freedom and abundance.
Another aspect to note is that in capitalism labor is freely traded as a commodity.
In communist society the same would no longer be a negative and alienating aspect. It would mean the affirmation of pleasure, for we would work less and less, thus eliminating the abuses of capitalism, economic liberalism, and the legacy of imperialism and nationalism.
Finally, it is noteworthy that modern communism identifies with communist parties. They are based mainly on Marxism, Marxism-Leninism, Marxist Maoism, both of which are doctrines aimed at equality among the majority.
Communism in History
“Pure communism” seeks a classless, stateless, and oppressive society so that decisions about what to produce and how to produce are democratically made.
However, Marxism was not, it is thought, the origin of communism. It dates back to antiquity (tribal societies lived and still live in communism) and the Middle Ages, with Christian communism or religious communism and anarcho-communism.
The first clear definition for communism was given by Plato (427 BC- 347 BC), in his text “ The Republic, ” in which he describes a state in which people would share all their goods, wives, and children.
Therefore, a government without private property and families. Thus, sexual union would be temporary and, in turn, child rearing would be the responsibility of the state.
Centuries later, communism will flourish in Christendom. First, with the Early Church (book of Acts of the Bible Apostles).
Later, with the medieval heresies, in which they criticized the inequalities of their time, including defending the fall of the nobility through the peasant revolt.
In the sixteenth century, with the rise of the mercantile bourgeoisie, other criticisms arose in relation to medieval values. As an example, we can cite the work “Utopia”, by the British philosopher Thomas Morus (1478-1535).
Puritan sects of North America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries will implant communist models of government.
However, this idea comes to fruition with criticism of the Enlightenment’s private property during the eighteenth century with thinkers such as Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) in France.
In the meantime, communist cooperativism emerges, albeit timidly, in communities such as Charles Fourier’s New Harmony (1825).
However, it will be with Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), the founders of “scientific socialism“, that we will have the modern configurations of communism.
The most relevant communist experiences, such as Leninism (Russia) and Maoism (China), are based on Marxism, especially in the works ” Capital .”
It is proposed the seizure of power by the proletarians as well as the adoption of a planned economy to end social inequalities.
Already in the work “The Manifesto of the Communist Party“, it is evident the succession of struggles between the working classes and the exploiting classes.
Examples of communist experiments carried out are the formation of the Soviet Union, with Stalin, and the People ‘s Republic of China. They represent the armed revolutionary conquest of political power.
In addition to the forms of communism imposed by the Soviet Union at the end of World War II, when the Soviet bloc emerged.