Atmosphere Abbreviations

 

What is Atmosphere?

Atmosphere is the gaseous layer that surrounds and accompanies the Earth in all its movements, due to the force of gravity, in addition to having the function of balancing the temperature of the planet.

The atmosphere is made up of several gases important for life, such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide , which form a transparent, colorless, odorless mixture called atmospheric air. In addition to gases, there is also water vapor, dust particles, microorganisms, etc.

The heaviest gases in the atmosphere are concentrated closer to the Earth’s surface and the lighter ones are further away. As altitude increases, the atmosphere becomes increasingly thin (at higher altitudes we feel short of breath). At 80 km of altitude, oxygen is almost non-existent, because, as it is a heavy gas, it is not maintained at high altitudes.

The atmosphere is part of the geographic stratum along with the “lithosphere” (set of rocks and soils), the “hydrosphere” (set of all the planet’s waters) and the “biosphere” (elements found in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere). ). These components are related to each other, that is, they are interdependent: any change in one of them implies a change in the whole.

Atmosphere layers

The atmosphere is made up of five layers from the Earth’s surface to the outermost:

  • Troposphere- It reaches an altitude of about 10 to 12 km and concentrates 75% of the gases and 80% of the atmospheric humidity (water vapor, ice crystals, etc. that form clouds). It is the layer in which atmospheric disturbances occur. As it rises it can reach -60°C at the top, which is called the tropopause.
  • Stratosphere– Extends from the troposphere to about 50 km. Water vapor is almost non-existent and clouds do not form. It is an important region due to the presence of ozone, which filters most of the ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun. The temperature increases with altitude, reaching 2°C at the top.
  • Mesosphere– Starts the so-called upper atmosphere and goes from the tropopause to 80 km altitude. Contrary to what happens in the stratosphere, here the temperature decreases with altitude (the air is thinner), reaching -90°C at the upper limit.
  • Ionosphere– Extends from the mesosphere to about 600 km. The air is very rarefied and charged with ions (electrified particles that have the property of reflecting radio waves and TVs). It is in this layer that meteors (shooting stars) disintegrate. The temperature can reach up to 1000°C at the top.
  • Exosphere– It is the outermost layer of the atmosphere. It starts at about 600 km altitude, with imprecise upper limits. The absence of air allows extremely high temperatures (over 1000°C).

Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is an atmospheric phenomenon that consists of the retention of heat radiated by the earth’s surface, by particles of gases and water in suspension, ensuring the maintenance of the planet’s thermal balance, therefore, the survival of plant species (which process photosynthesis) and animals.

An imbalance in the atmospheric composition, caused by the high concentration of certain gases capable of absorbing heat, such as methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, causes a greater storage of heat that is reflected to the earth resulting in the greenhouse effect.

Acid rain

Acid rain is another atmospheric phenomenon caused, on a local or regional scale, by pollution emitted by industries, transport and other forms of combustion. The main responsible for this phenomenon are sulfur dioxide, emitted from the burning of fossil fuels, the oxygen already present in the atmosphere and the nitrogen dioxide emitted by motor vehicles.

List of Acronyms Related to Atmosphere

AMOHA Accurate Measurements of Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere
ACAD Air Containment Atmosphere Dilution
AACA Ambient Atmosphere Conditions and Aging
ABACUS Arctic Biosphere Atmosphere Coupling at Multiple Scales
ALOHA Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres
AUTOMATIC Atmosphere
AT Atmosphere
ATM Atmosphere
ATA Atmosphere Absolute
ALSPS Atmosphere and Land Surface Processes
ALSPES Atmosphere and Land Surface Processes
ALSP Atmosphere and Land Surface Processes
ACE Atmosphere Climate Environment
AEF Atmosphere Environmental File
AEE Atmosphere Explorer E
ATEX ATmosphere EXplosibles
AIR Atmosphere Improves Results
ANR Atmosphère Normale de Référence
ANI Atmosphere Normale Internationale
AOS Atmosphere Ocean System
ATM Atmosphere of Pressure
ATO Atmosphere Over Pressure
ASFC Atmosphere Super Fashion Company
ACE Atmosphere, Climate & Environment
AEROCE Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment
AIM Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere
AO Atmosphere-Ocean
ATA Atmospheres Absolute
ASTER Atmosphere-Surface Turbulence Exchange Research
AVIM Atmosphere-Vegetation Interaction Model
AAC Aviation, Atmosphere and Climate
BASIN Biosphere Atmosphere Stable Isotope Network
BATS Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme
BOREAS Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study
BOREAS Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study
BASEEFA British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment for Flammable Atmospheres
BASEEFA British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres
CCRA Cape Canaveral Reference Atmosphere
CKRA Cape Kennedy Reference Atmosphere
CGA Caractérisation et Gestion de l’Atmosphère
CAPS Cell Atmosphere Processing System
CAOS Center for Atmosphere Ocean Sciences
COLA Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies
CSTEA Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres
CAMS Central Atmosphere Monitoring System
CASA Citizens’ Alliance for Saving the Atmosphere and the Earth
CARMA Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres
CAM Community Atmosphere Model
COADS Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set
CAD Containment Atmosphere Dilution
CAPES Containment Atmosphere Purge Exhaust System
CARS Containment Atmosphere Recirculation System
CAPACITY Controlled Atmosphere Packaging
CAP Controlled Atmosphere Packaging
CARTS Controlled Atmosphere Reliable Transportation System
CAT Controlled Atmosphere Transfer
CAK Controlled-Atmosphere Killing
CASES Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study
CIRA Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere
CIRA COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere
CHARM Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model
COAMPS Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System
COARE Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment
COLA1D Coupled Ocean-Land-Atmosphere 1-Dimensional Model
DSEAR Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002
DASC Deep Atmosphere Spectral Camera
DAO Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans
EAPS Earth Atmosphere and Planetary Sciences
ELAT Electrification of the Atmosphere
FASS Fire Atmosphere Sampling System
FACTS Forest Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch
GLASS Global Land Atmosphere System Study
GOALS Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land-System
GLA Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres
IAC Institute for Atmosphere and Climate
IMPACT Integrated Model of Plumes and Atmosphere in Complex Terrain
IOTA Interface Ocean – Terre – Atmosphere
IASOA International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere
ICASVR International Commission on Atmosphere-Soil-Vegetation Relations
ISA International Standard Atmosphere
J-COARE Japanese Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment
JISAO Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and the Ocean
JONSWAP Joint North Sea Wave Atmosphere Program
LAADS L1 and Atmospheres Archive and Distribution System
LBA Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia
LATM Liter-atmosphere
LARS Lower Atmosphere Research Satellite
LADEE Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer
MAP Maneuverable Atmosphere Probe
MAPER Maneuverable Atmosphere Probe
MAST Marine Atmosphere Science and Technology
MAA Matched Atmosphere Algorithm
MSASI Mercury Sodium Atmosphere Spectral Imager
MU-2 Middle and Upper Atmosphere
OMAN Middle and Upper Atmosphere
MU Middle and Upper Atmosphere
MUAM Middle and Upper Atmosphere Model
MACS Middle Atmosphere in the Climate System
MARC Middle Atmosphere Responses to Change
META Millimeter Emission Temperature of the Atmosphere
MOGUNTIA Model of the Global Universal Tracer Transport in the Atmosphere
MAMI Modeling of the Atmosphere-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere
MAEST Modified Atmosphere
MA Modified Atmosphere
MAP Modified Atmosphere Packaging
MAPER Modified Atmosphere Packaging
NACOA National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere
NA Negative Atmosphere
NACS Neutral Atmosphere Composition Spectrometer
NATE Neutral Atmosphere Temperature Experiment
NASA Normal Atmosphere Safety Approval
OACES Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study
OLA Ocean-Land-Atmosphere
OAUGD One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge
OCCA Optical Communication Over Clear Atmosphere
OCTA Oxidizing Capacity of the Tropospheric Atmosphere
ODA Oxygen-Deficient Atmosphere
PACE Particles, Atmosphere and Chemistry Experiment
PLAID Patchy Land Atmosphere Interactive Dynamics
PACA Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
PAET Planetary Atmosphere Experiments Test
PATH Pollutants in the Atmosphere and their Transport over Hong Kong
PACU Portable Atmosphere Control Unit
PEA Potentially Explosive Atmosphere
PAOC Program in Atmospheres, Oceans and Climate
PNCA Programme National de Chimie de l’Atmosphere
POAC Programs in Atmospheres, Oceans, and Climate
PAA Project Atmosphere Australia
SALSA Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere
SIA Shuttle Induced Atmosphere
SUMS Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer
SPAC Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum
SVAT Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model
SABER Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometers
SABER Sounding of the Atmosphere Using Broadband Emission Radiometry
SAFARI Southern African Fire Atmosphere Research Initiative
SUPARCO Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
SBA Special Bureau for the Atmosphere
SAFIRE Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere Using Far-Infrared Emission
SAV State-of-the-Atmosphere Variables
SEA Sudden Enhancement of Atmospheres
SEAD Sun Earth Atmosphere and the Dream
SARB Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget
SOLAS Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study
SVAT Surface-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer
SASER Synthetic Atmosphere and Space Environment Representations
TOA Terra Ocean Atmosphere
TAO TOGA Atmosphere Ocean
TOA Top of the Atmosphere
TAOS Total Atmosphere-Ocean Server
TRAGEX Trace Gas Exchange: Mid-Latitude Terrestrial Ecosystems and Atmosphere
TAA Transmission Ability of the Atmosphere
TEA Transversely Excited Atmosphere
TAO Tropical Atmosphere Ocean
TOGA Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere
TOAN Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere Newsletter
TOGA Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere Programme
UAG Upper Atmosphere Geophysics
UARP Upper Atmosphere Research Program
UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
UAS Upper Atmosphere Sensor
VCAM Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor
VTA Vent to Atmosphere
WPA Warm Pool Atmosphere