An abbreviation is a linguistic term that has long gone beyond the scope of the science of language into widespread use. For the first time, this word is encountered in high school.
Today we will talk about the origin of the concept, the process of abbreviation, the varieties of abbreviations, the rules for their use. But if the reader is only interested in the value, we will submit it right away.
According to the encyclopedia "Russian language" (edited by F.I. Filin):
An abbreviation is a noun consisting of truncated words included in the original phrase. It is composed either of the first letters, or sounds, or parts of lexemes. The last word from the decoding of the abbreviation can be used in its entirety.
The spelling, reading, declension of the formed abbreviation will depend on the type used. To use it correctly, you should read the article in its entirety.
The word "abbreviation" came to Russian linguistics from Italian philology by tracing. In the original language, this is "abbreviatura", which literally translates as "abbreviation". In turn, in Italian, this term goes back to the Latin verb "abbrevio" (reduce), which comes from the adjective "brevis" - " short ".
The concept of "abbreviation" can be called related. This word is called the process of reducing the phrase itself. I.e:
An abbreviation is the result of an abbreviation (abbreviation) process.
Types and types of abbreviations
Having dealt with what an abbreviation is, let's move on to its varieties. There are various classifications, but traditionally in modern science there are 6 main types:
RF, TSUM, university.
Syllabic (abbreviations of the initial parts of lexemes):
People's Deputy, caretaker.
social security, municipality.
organizational work, Sberbank, maternity hospital.
head of the department, commanders.
military enlistment office, moped.
Initial abbreviations are further divided into several subtypes:
All non-initial abbreviations (that is, types 2-6) are also called compound words.
Declension of abbreviated words
The declension of the first three types depends on the sound of the stem ending.
Since the fourth and sixth types end with a whole word, they are inclined as if it were free, not part of the abbreviation. For example: Sberbank - in Sberbank.
The fifth type is not inclined.
The answer to the question of how the abbreviation is written depends on the phrase to which it goes back, and the type of abbreviation.
For initials, the relevant rules are:
Compound words (types 2-6) are written:
This is a brief note about the abbreviation - what it is, how words are read and written, how to decline them. This information is sufficient for proper use. More details - in the works of linguists.