How to write abbreviations?
Initial abbreviations are written in capital letters: UN, MFA, RF. Dots or spaces between letters are not put, but a space is used between two independently used abbreviations: IRYa RAS, MFA RF.
Words formed from initial abbreviations by adding suffixes are written in lowercase letters: text message (from SMS), kaveenshchik (from KVN), traffic cop (from GAI), foreign ministry (from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs). In other cases, capital letters are preserved: mini-KVN, SMS mailing.
The abbreviation university is traditionally written in lowercase letters. Variant spelling - at the abbreviation ZAGS (registry office).
Compound words formed from segments of words are written in lowercase letters: special forces, secretary of state, chief accountant. At the same time, the abbreviated names of institutions and organizations are capitalized if their full name is capitalized: Sberbank, Rospechat, Ministry of Education and Science.
The spelling of mixed abbreviations (formed from combinations of initials and segments of words) should be checked in a dictionary, since their spelling is not uniform: KamAZ, GLONASS, IAEA, social security.
And here you can read about the use of quotation marks in abbreviated names.
How to write foreign language abbreviations?
Foreign abbreviations can be transmitted in the Russian text in Latin (the same as in the source language) and letters of the Russian alphabet. Further - about how to write foreign language abbreviations in Russian.
If the abbreviation is read “by syllables” (like a normal word), then it is written in capital letters: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) , UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) , FIFA (International Federation of Football Associations), FIA (International Automobile Federation) , FIDE (International Chess Federation).
If the abbreviation is read by foreign letter names, then it is written in lowercase letters, while hyphens are used: i-q. Abbreviated proper names begin with a capital letter: BBC, CNN, IBC.
Foreign-language abbreviations can turn into independent common nouns in Russian, which are written in lowercase letters without hyphens: PR (from PR - public relations), eychar (HR - human resources), DJ, VJ, dividi.
How to determine the gender of an abbreviation?
Grammatical difficulties are associated with the definition of the gender of initial abbreviations.
When should abbreviations be inflected?
Grammatical difficulties are associated with the declension of sound initial abbreviations with a masculine reference word: in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs? In the Moscow Art Theater or in the Moscow Art Theater? Civil Registry Officer or Civil Registry Office? Made according to GOST or according to GOST? CERN research or CERN?
"Dictionary of grammatical variants of the Russian language" by L. K. Graudina, V. A. Itskovich and L. P. Katlinskaya (M., 2008) recommends inflecting the abbreviations VAK, GOST, Moscow Art Theater, VGIK, Youth Theater, AIDS, OMON. Other abbreviations in strict business writing are not declined. In colloquial speech, declension is possible: a traffic jam on the Moscow Ring Road, an employee of the registry office.
When should abbreviations not be used?
Abbreviations and abbreviations should save not only space on the page, but also the reader's time. Therefore, abbreviations in the text are acceptable if the reader does not often have to refer to additional reference sources to decipher them.