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Online Marketing Glossary

In our online marketing glossary you will find explanations of important terms and further information on them. The link to the keyword takes you to a detailed explanation of the term.


Bounce Rate

The bounce rate shows the percentage of visitors to a page who left it immediately without visiting any other pages. The bounce rate is often used as a measure of the satisfaction of site visitors. This is based on the assumption that a high bounce rate is equivalent to low visitor satisfaction. However, there may be content where a high bounce rate is normal, such as when visitors quickly find what they were looking for.

A/B testing

These tests are used to check layout variants in order to improve performance. In A/B tests, a detail of the layout is changed – for example the color or the size of the font. This variant is then compared to the unmodified variant on the fly to see which performs better. For example, the bounce rate, the length of stay or the proportion of returning visitors can serve as measurement criteria for the success of a variant.

Above the fold

Above the fold is a term used in print for "above the fold" and in the online area describes the visible area on the monitor or on the screen that is visible without scrolling. Content that is "above the fold" has a special meaning for Google. For example, care must be taken not to place too much advertising there, otherwise the site could be devalued.

Absolute link

An absolute link includes a complete URL including the domain, the protocol and the subdirectory, for example A distinction must be made between relative links, which are only limited to the path name.


Accuracy can be used to measure the quality of results returned by search engines. It describes the relationship between the number of relevant results that are returned and the number of irrelevant results that were not returned to the total number of documents. With a very large number of documents in the corpus, the accuracy is usually close to one.

Ad server

An ad server manages and archives advertising media on the Internet and can be managed by the advertiser at any time via online access. An ad server stores all relevant data on user behavior such as the click-through rate (CTR), the number of clicks and the ad impressions.
Ad servers are used to display the appropriate advertising at the appropriate time for the target group. While smaller websites in particular rely on the services of external ad servers, large companies often use their own hardware and infrastructure.

Activities by campaign

Tracking activity by campaign helps use ad dollars more efficiently.
Which campaign brings you the most, which should you continue or even strengthen, which brings too little benefit? Measures such as the click-through rate (CTR) or the total number of clicks are used to compare the campaigns. The return on investment (ROI) is often used as a basis for comparison and the costs of the individual advertising campaigns are compared to the profit.

AD = Art Director or advertising material

AD (Art Director) as the graphic designer in charge of a project or Ad in the sense of an advertisement.


AdRank determines what position an ad gets on a Google search results page. The AdRank is calculated from the maximum bid per click and the quality factor. The ad with the highest AdRank appears at the top of the search results page.


AdWords is Google's advertising program. There are different ways to advertise with AdWords. Both display ads and ads on the search results pages are available. An auction process is used for the ads: Whoever achieves the highest AdRank, which is calculated from the click bid and the quality factor, receives the top position.

affiliate marketing

Affiliate Marketing is a commission-based marketing and sales concept for the Internet.


Affiliates display commercial text links or banners from partners on their website and in return receive a reward per click or transaction made. Affiliate sites have fallen into disrepute lately because some providers have attempted to use search engine optimization to artificially boost their sites' rankings in order to maximize clicks and revenue.

affiliate program

Affiliate programs serve to distribute online advertising. The affiliates on whose websites the advertising is placed and the merchants who place the advertising are involved.


Abbreviation for “Attention”, “Information”, “Desire”, “Action”. An advertising message (e.g. an advertisement, a poster, an e-mail or a commercial...) must first attract attention, then inform, then arouse longing for the offer and finally encourage action (= purchase). This is also referred to as a conversion funnel. This term is chosen because the circle of people reached is getting smaller step by step, like a narrowing funnel.


AJAX stands for "Asynchronous JavaScript and XML". Classic websites have to be completely reloaded in order to display new content. AJAX, on the other hand, only reloads parts of the page while preserving the skeleton and core structure. The page display is calculated in the client – ​​the server supplies the JavaScript and the data as XML. Google couldn't crawl AJAX pages for a long time, so the pages in question had to provide an HTML snapshot for the crawler. In the meantime, however, this requirement is obsolete, because Google is now able to crawl and also execute JavaScript.

Alexa Rank

The Alexa rank indicates how big the traffic on a website is in comparison to other websites. The Alexa Rank exists both globally and at the level of individual countries. The data on which the Alexa rank is calculated comes from the Alexa Toolbar.

(Google) algorithm

Google uses various algorithms to calculate search results and interpret search queries. Google's algorithms are constantly evolving. They are used, for example, to evaluate the quality of the content (Panda) and the backlinks (Penguin) of a website. In addition to PageRrank, Google uses over 200 other factors to calculate rankings. One of the most important ranking factors is still the backlinks of a page.

alias domain

An alias domain is used to point to the same content as another, existing domain. For example, can be used to point to the content of Both domains point to the same IP range. An alias domain can have its own DNS zone, special DNS entries and a separate mail service.

All in title

"Allintitle" is a so-called search operator on Google. This search operator can be used to display pages that contain the searched keyword in the title tag.

all url

Allinurl is a search operator on Google. With the help of "Allinurl" you can display results that carry the searched keyword in the URL.

Analysis of the registration process

In the course of the purchase or registration process, sometimes 90% or more of the customers are lost! A targeted analysis helps to prevent this, whereby every improvement can directly or indirectly lead to an increase in sales.

There are various reasons that can lead to customer loss during the buying or government process. These include, for example, poor usability of the website or excessive loading times.

The purchase and registration process is part of the conversion funnel. The prerequisite is that the attention of a customer has first been gained and his interest has been aroused. In addition, there must be a need.

Number of visits per visitor

Looking at the number of visits per visitor allows conclusions to be drawn about the loyalty of the target audience addressed. The absolute number of visits can also be used to determine whether your Internet investments are worthwhile.

In addition to the absolute value of the number of visits, the course of the visits is of particular importance: is the number increasing or decreasing? From this, conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of the measures taken.


Active Server Pages (ASP) is a script language developed by Microsoft for the dynamic development of websites.

exit pages

Exit page analysis provides insight into where visitors leave a website. Pages that are used particularly frequently for exits should be checked for their content and optimized if necessary.

audience targeting

With audience targeting, you can address your target group based on their current preferences and depending on their current life situation. Numerous criteria can be used for audience targeting. In addition to demographic factors such as age, gender or social status, interests can also be taken into account. A special form of audience targeting is retargeting. People are contacted who have previously been interested in a company, its products or services.

Exits/Exit Rate

Exit count is the number of people who last viewed a particular page before exiting a website or closing their browser. The relationship between the number of exits and the total number of page views is the exit rate or "percentage of exits".


Autoresponders or out-of-office messages are automatically generated replies that can be sent when the addressee with a specific e-mail address cannot access their messages - for example, when they are on vacation. Autoresponders can be provided with a standard message that indicates, for example, that the person is absent and a substitute. Most of the common e-mail clients such as Microsoft Outlook or Mozilla Thunderbird offer autoresponders.

B2B = Business to Business

B2B or business-to-business refers to relationships between companies. The term is mainly used in marketing. We used to talk about capital goods marketing here. A distinction must be made between the terms B2C and B2C marketing: these are about relationships between companies and consumers or end consumers.

B2C = Business to Consumer

B2C or business-to-consumer is used as a term for relationships between companies and consumers or end users. The term B2C is often used in the marketing environment. The term B2C marketing has prevailed here (formerly consumer goods marketing). In contrast to B2C, B2B describes the relationships between companies.

back link

Backlinks are references that point from other websites to a specific page of an internet presence. Backlinks are still one of the most important ranking factors on Google. The assumption here is that a large number of backlinks originating from high-quality sites represent a quality feature for the linked site. Backlinks are used to determine the PageRank, a key figure used by Google, among others, to calculate the linking of pages on the web. The construction and maintenance of a website's backlink profile is also referred to as off-site optimization.

Bad Neighborhood

Bad neighborhood refers to pages that violate Google's guidelines and have therefore been devalued. The term also refers to websites with questionable content and optimization techniques. Links to such sites should be avoided.

Banners / advertising banners

A banner is a frequently used form of advertising on websites. The advertising is integrated into the website as a graphic or animation file, usually in GIF or Flash format. There are different sizes and formats in which advertising banners can appear. These include, for example, the Rectangle or the Skyscraper.
Ad banners can appear in most places on a web page, such as in the header, within the text, or in the margins.
Advertising banners are to be distinguished from other forms of online advertising such as search advertising or advertising in social networks.


Websites are considered barrier-free if they can be used regardless of physical and technical requirements. On barrier-free websites, people with physical disabilities such as poor eyesight have the opportunity to have them read to them with the help of so-called screen readers. To do this, however, as many elements on the website as possible, such as images and videos, must be provided with a text description that the screen reader can access.

Behavioral targeting

With the help of behavioral targeting, online advertising is delivered depending on the surfing behavior of the user. For example, you will only be shown advertising for a car model if you have previously visited car websites more than once in a certain period of time. User data is collected in behavioral targeting – mostly using cookies. This makes it possible to establish connections between the visits of different websites by a user. Because of the data collection, behavioral targeting is controversial among privacy advocates.

Below the fold

Literally translated, Below the Fold means "under the fold". The term, which was originally coined in the field of print media, describes the areas of a website that are not directly visible after loading without scrolling down. The top area of ​​a web page is referred to as “above the fold”.
With regard to search engine optimization, care must be taken to ensure that particularly important content does not appear below the fold, but is visible immediately after loading.

visits / visitors

The number of visits and visitors is a central key figure for measuring the success of websites. The following applies: Each visitor can also call up a page several times in a certain period of time. Visitors also like to use the term “unique user” (“single visitor”). It describes how many different people have accessed a website within a certain period of time.
Visitor data can be measured using tools such as Google Analytics.

Visitors from search engines / organic visitors

Especially for measuring the success of SEO measures, it is interesting to know how many visitors clicked on a search result on a website. The expectation is that this number should increase if the SEO measures have been successfully implemented.
It's not just about the sheer number of visitors. It is also interesting to observe their behavior: How long do organic visitors stay on the site, how high is their bounce rate, etc.
The Google Search Console and Google Analytics are particularly useful for determining the corresponding numbers.

Visitor loyalty / Visitor frequency

Returning users are very important in online marketing. The number or proportion of returning visitors is described by the concept of visitor loyalty. The more interesting the content on a website and the higher the quality of the information to be found there, the greater the likelihood that visitors will return. Technical factors also play a role: for example, the loading time of the page should not be too long.

Order completion after campaign

Evaluating post-campaign order completion means tracking the ultimate success of a campaign. This involves the question of how many users have gone through the entire conversion funnel from viewing an advertising measure or visiting a website to completing a transaction. The term "order completion after campaign" is therefore closely related to the term conversion rate.

Black Hat SEO

Black hat SEO uses search engine optimization methods that violate Google's guidelines. Black hat methods include, for example, doorway pages or cloaking. Black Hat SEO has a high risk of being penalized by Google and should therefore be avoided.
The opposite of Black Hat SEO is White Hat SEO.


Blockrank is an algorithm used by Google to calculate PageRank faster. Groups of pages are formed. The block rank of popular pages is calculated more frequently than the block rank of less popular pages.

blog / weblog

Blog is the usual term for a weblog. The word weblog actually consists of "web" and "log" and refers to an Internet diary that is used successfully by private individuals and many companies.
The separation between blog and website can no longer be made clearly today. Many websites that regularly publish new content can be called a blog.
As a distinction, it can be said that many websites have their own area that appears on news and that is often referred to as a blog.


Boiler Plate designates a text module of a website that is used unchanged on several pages, for example in the footer. The content of the Boiler Plate is not directly related to the content of the respective page or the text above it. Often, boiler plates are also used to display certain links that should be available on every page (e.g. to the imprint or the terms and conditions).

Bounce Rate -> see bounce rate

Breadcrumb (breadcrumb navigation)

A breadcrumb is a navigation element that shows the visitor in which area of ​​a website he is currently located. Breadcrumbs map the hierarchy of a website and allow navigation between the levels. For example, in the following breadcrumb, you can toggle between the landing page, category, and home page:
Home > Category > Landing Page

Doorway Pages

Doorway pages are typically a large collection of low-quality pages that Google considers spam and violates Google's policies. Pages are set up to rank well for specific keywords. If the user clicks on a corresponding search result, he is immediately forwarded to another page, which usually deals with different topics than the doorway page.


Caffeine is the name of the new index that allows Google to process new web pages faster. The new index is no longer divided into several layers like its predecessor, so that there are no longer different indexing intervals.

Call to Action -> see call to action

CC = Corporate Communications

Corporate communication, i.e. corporate communication, includes all communicative measures and instruments of a company with which the company presents itself and its services to the relevant target groups. Corporate communication refers to both internal and external communication.


ccTLD is the abbreviation for country code top level domain and stands for country-specific top level domains such

CD = corporate design

Corporate design means the uniformly designed appearance of a company. Corporate design shapes, for example, the appearance of a company's communication tools such as advertising material and business stationery. Corporate design is part of the corporate identity.

CD = creative director

The term creative director (CD) is not protected. The CD can appear in different types of businesses such as an advertising agency and is responsible for directing creative and creative activities.

CI = corporate identity

The corporate identity or CI embodies the essence of a company. The term summarizes the most important features of a company that differentiate it from other companies and make it unique. The corporate identity should not be equated with individual features such as the brand or the logo. Corporate identity includes many sub-areas such as corporate design.

Click Popularity

Click popularity, a term from search engine marketing, means how often a specific search result is clicked on. Whether click popularity has an impact on Google rankings is controversial. Google itself regularly denies any possible influence.


Cloaking is a technique that violates Google policies. Cloaking is used to show Google and other search engines different content than the visitors. Mostly text-heavy pages that are optimized for certain keywords are delivered to the search engines. Cloaking is one of the black hat SEO techniques.

click-through rate

The ratio between the number of clicks on a search result or ad and the number of times a search result or ad appears is called the click-through rate or CTR. The CTR is used to measure the success of search results and ads.

Code to text ratio

The term is somewhat misleading, as it actually determines the ratio of text (information that users can use) to code on a web page. The code includes, for example, HTML elements, CSS markup or JavaScript. The aim is to achieve the highest possible ratio of text to code.

Compete Rank

The Compete Rank compares the popularity of websites. For this purpose, the traffic data of the individual pages are estimated. The Compete Rank covers only a part of the websites available on the net and focuses on US websites.

Content Management System (CMS)

A content management system is software that enables the management of online content, i.e. text, image, video and sound.
A key feature of CMS is the separation between data management and presentation. The individual pages are built dynamically. The data is usually kept in a database system such as MySQL.
The most well-known CMS include WordPress, Joomla and TYPO3.

Content Network

The Google Content Network encompasses a huge number of different websites. This includes small blogs as well as large portals. Advertisements placed via Google AdWords may appear on these websites.


One speaks of a conversion when a visitor to a website has carried out an action desired by the company. A conversion can be a simple click on an ad, but also the ordering of a newsletter or the purchase of a product in an online shop.

conversion rate

The conversion rate (CVR) describes the proportion of users who have carried out a specific action within the conversion process. There are different types of actions from which the CVR can be calculated - see Conversion.
With the CVR, a distinction is made between the micro and the macro CVR. While the micro-CVR only covers partial aspects of the conversion process, the macro-CVR describes the complete process.

Conversion Rate Cart

One aspect of the conversion process describes how many users put a product or service in their shopping cart. The shopping cart conversion rate thus represents part of the entire conversion process and can be determined using micro-CVR.

Conversion rate cart by campaign

See conversion rate shopping cart, but specifically for users who have added products to their shopping cart as a result of a specific campaign.

Cost per conversion

The cost per conversion is important to measure the success of a marketing measure. If the cost per conversion required to sell a product is higher than the profit made by selling the product without considering the cost per conversion, the measure was unsuccessful.

conversion tracking

Conversion tracking by Google AdWords, Yandex or other search engines and advertising providers makes it possible to measure the achievement of a goal (e.g. order, contact...). You can also specify individual conversion goals and measure whether the associated actions have actually been carried out. The success of a marketing measure can be determined by connecting the measured target achievement and the costs per conversion.


An HTTP cookie, also known as a browser cookie, is information that a web server sends to a browser. The information remains there for a period of time determined by the cookie. With the help of cookies, for example, users can be recognized, which is used in online marketing - for example for retargeting

CP = corporate proposal

A promise (commitment) made by a company to its employees, suppliers and customers.

CPC (cost per click) / price per click

The CPC (cost per click) indicates the average amount that has to be paid when a user clicks on an ad. The CPC is used in Google AdWords, for example, and is determined in an auction process.

CPL (cost per lead)

In this context, the acquisition of an address is referred to as a lead. This can be the contact address of a visitor who has filled out a contact form or, for example, participated in a competition or survey. This value describes the costs per collected address. The CPL is usually used where other remuneration bases such as sold products are not available.

CPM (cost per mille) / TCP

Cost per mille or price per thousand contacts is a key figure that is used to bill for advertising measures. Calculations are made in units of 1,000 customers reached. The counter-model of billing is the CPC.

CPO (cost per order)

The CPO states the average costs of an advertising measure incurred per order.


Crawlers, also known as searchbots or spiders, are programs that independently jump from website to website and collect the content found there for indexing by the search engines. Internal and external links on the website are used for this purpose, as well as information from XML sitemaps.
Google's crawlers are also known as Googlebot.

CRM - Customer Relationship Management

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) describes the systematic alignment of business processes to customers and their needs. CRM systems are used to communicate with customers and to document this communication. They are connected to other areas of the company such as marketing, sales or warehousing via interfaces.

cross selling

Cross-selling (also cross-selling) refers to the sale of complementary products or services. Sales should be used to sell suitable additional products or supplementary services.


The term "cross-media" is used in connection with coordinated measures that take place as part of a company's communication policy. In doing so, several communication channels are connected in a coordinated manner. An example of cross-media would be the combination of a website, social media and a YouTube channel.


A CSS file (Cascading Style Sheets) defines how the layout of a website should look. This includes, for example, font, font size and font color or the placement of elements on a website.
CSS instructions can also appear directly in the HTML code ("inline").

CTR (Click Through Rate) / click through rate

The click-through rate (CTR) or the click rate results from the ratio of the number of clicks on an ad or a search result and the number of ad placements or impressions of the search result.

customer journey

Customer journey refers to all points of contact of a consumer with a brand, a product or a service before the purchase. The customer journey also includes interactions that are not directly related to the company or its communication measures. Visits to rating platforms, obtaining opinions from third parties or reading blog posts about a product or service also fall within the customer journey.

deep link

A deep link is a link that does not point to the start page of a website, but to a lower subpage.


Delisting describes the removal of a page or a URL from the index of a search engine. Most search engines offer the appropriate tools for this – including Google in the Google Search Console.


DENIC is the abbreviation for "German Network Information Center". Domains ending can be registered here. DENIC has the legal form of a cooperative.

Display advertising / display marketing

Display advertising or display marketing is a variant of online advertising that occurs in the form of ads on websites or in apps. Advertising banners are placed, which can appear as graphics, animations, videos or text. Display advertising must be distinguished from search advertising. With this, paid search results are displayed according to the input of the user.

DNS server / name server

DNS servers ensure that names are assigned to IP addresses in IP-based networks. You can think of a DNS server as an address directory.
In networks like the Internet, there can be multiple DNS servers that are hierarchically divided.
Using your own DNS server can also make sense in smaller networks, such as within a company network.

domain / domain / hostnames

By definition, a domain identifies a subnet within an international network. There are different types of domains such as country-specific domains (ccTLDs) such, or generic domains (gTLD) such as .com. Domains are used to identify websites (e.g. or e-mail addresses (-> see also URL).
With the help of a so-called Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), any object, be it physical or virtual, can be identified worldwide.

Doorway Pages -> see bridge pages

Direct Marketing (DM / Direct Marketing)

Direct marketing (also direct-response advertising) or dialogue marketing describes forms of market communication in which customers are addressed directly with a request for an answer. There are various sub-areas of direct marketing - such as direct advertising tailored to people or groups of people or dialogue marketing, which is particularly about getting the people addressed to react.


"Dofollow" describes links that are intended to be followed by search engines. Unlike "nofollow", however, "dofollow" has no official use as a value for the robots attribute. If a link is not set to "nofollow", it is automatically considered a "dofollow" link.

Double opt-in

Double opt-in is a procedure used when registering new users on online services. As soon as a user has registered for a new service such as a newsletter, he will receive an email to the email address provided. There he has to click on a confirmation link. This is to ensure that email addresses are not misused. The double opt-in procedure is legally required in many countries for the registration of new users,

Duplicate Content / Duplicate Content

Duplicate content is content that is contained several times in identical or at least very similar form on a website. For example, if an article can be called up under different URLs, it can happen that this article is indexed several times by the search engines, so that the different URLs compete with each other, which in turn can damage the rankings. To avoid duplicate content, so-called canonical links are often used, which point to the main URL to be indexed.

Average Position (Avg. Pos.)

"Average Position" is a metric that Google uses for a variety of purposes. For example, for paid search ads, it shows the placement within the ad unit achieved by them depending on the keyword. In the Google Search Console you have the possibility to see the organic rankings achieved by a website depending on the keyword.


EdgeRank is an algorithm used by Facebook that decides the placement of posts in the newsfeed. All user interactions in Facebook, be it likes, comments or uploaded media, are referred to as Edge.
The EdgeRank is used because the number of posts that could potentially appear in the newsfeed is far too high to actually display them all.
Factors included in the EdgeRank are similarity, depreciation over time and edge weight.

Unique Visitors

Unique Visitors: This metric measures the number of visitors to a website within a specific period of time. Visitors are only recorded once if they have visited the site several times within the period under consideration.

Entry page (destination page / landing page)

An entry page (also known as a landing page or landing page) is a web page that a visitor arrives at after clicking a link, search result, or banner.
Landing pages are usually geared towards a specific topic and specific keywords and are therefore also the focus of many SEO measures.

entry service

Entry services are services that enter websites in various directories, web catalogs and RSS lists either manually or automatically. However, the benefit of such entries for the rankings in Google's search results is questionable.

Everflux Effect

The Everflux effect refers to temporary changes in Google rankings and search results. The effect resulted from the earlier use of two different Googlebots: the Freshbot for newly indexed pages and the Deepbot for the full indexing of the pages later.
Since Google introduced the new index called Caffeine and indexes pages in one step, the Everflux effect can no longer be observed.

Exact matching

Exact matching is a booking option on Google AdWords. If this option is selected, advertising will only be displayed if the search terms entered correspond exactly and exclusively to the booked keywords. For this purpose, the keywords to be booked are [written in square brackets]. Phrase matching and broad matching are available as additional options in AdWords.

Exact match domain

Exact Match Domains (EMDs) are domains that have been targeted to specific keywords with the aim of achieving better Google search rankings for these keywords. However, the effect of exact match domains is – if it should still exist at all – very small.

expired domain

Expired domains are existing domains that are no longer used. Expired domains are often for sale and can fetch high prices. However, before acquiring an expired domain, one should look at its history and make sure that it has not been used for spam content. There are various tools that can help track down expired domains.

fallback graphic

In general, fallback graphics are used in cases where a specific graphic or animation is not available. In the case of advertising banners, for example, animated flash banners are often used. As a rule, a fallback graphic (GIF or JPG) must be supplied for all Flash elements.
Fallback graphics can also be used in news or blogs if no suitable image is available to illustrate the message.


The fallout or the failure rate is a key figure for the evaluation of search results in information retrieval. The following example shows how the fallout is calculated: Suppose the population consists of 15 documents, of which 5 are relevant for a specific search query and 10 are irrelevant. The search query returned 3 relevant and 2 irrelevant results. The fallout in this case is 2/10=0.2.


A favicon (short for favorite icon) is a small, 16×16 or 32×32 pixel icon, symbol or logo. It is used to recognize websites. For example, favicons appear in the browser address bar next to the URL and in bookmark lists. The associated graphics file is stored on the web server on which the site is operated - usually in the root directory.


Flash is a technology for programming and animating multimedia, interactive content. Flash is now being supported by fewer and fewer providers. For example, Google, Apple and Microsoft have announced that they will discontinue support or have already done so.
Adobe itself will end support for Flash in 2020.

Fragment URL

Fragment URLs are used on AJAX websites to call up certain states of a page. Only certain parts of the page are reloaded without carrying out a complete reload of the page. In frame URLs, the part responsible for the status of the page is separated from the rest of the URL by a '#'. Google has historically ignored the part of URLs that comes after the '#'.


Frames can be used to combine content from different web servers on a single page. However, search engines have problems reading the content of individual frames. In addition, frames can cause the content on a page to be evaluated as several different pages, which can reduce the weight or relevance of the page in terms of search engines.
In the past, the so-called noframes area was often used to manipulate search results by being overloaded with keywords.


The File Transfer Protocol (FTP for short) is a protocol used to exchange data between a client and a server in IP networks. FTP allows various actions such as creating, renaming and deleting directories.
A large amount of suitable software is available for using FTP. FileZilla, for example, is very well known and popular. FTP can also be used encrypted using the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol.

geo targeting

Geo-targeting, also known as regional targeting, allows target groups to be selected in a geographically targeted manner.

Google Analytics

Google Analytics (GA) is an online tool from Google for monitoring and evaluating user movements to and on a website. In other words: it is a tool for web analytics (internet controlling).
With a professionally set Google Analytics, marketing activities can be aligned to individual goals and target groups. In addition, visitor behavior can be better tracked and measures can be derived from it.

Google Display Network

The Google advertising system began with text ads - but today it goes much further: Google, with its advertising partner program Google AdSense, places text and image ads on thousands of websites such as 20 Minuten, Blick, trade journals, blogs, etc.

- H -

Call to Action / Call to Action

With a call to action, guide your visitors on what needs to be done next. The call to action is an element in an advertisement or on a website that calls for an action.


English term for "accesses".

Hostnames -> see domain


Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a text-based markup language for structuring content on websites.



An iframe is a way of displaying a page within another page.

Impressions / Impressions / Circuits

In online marketing, impressions are generally referred to as impressions of a website or an advertising medium.

Search engine index

The search engine index refers to the database of a search engine operator. That is why inclusion in the database of a search engine is also called indexing.

Internal link

Internal links are links that are linked from one page to another within the same website.

Internet Controlling / Web Analytics

Internet controlling means the continuous observation and evaluation of user movements to and on a website.

International marketing

In view of stagnating and saturated domestic markets and increasing international competitive pressure, international marketing is becoming increasingly important. International marketing includes the planning, coordination and control of all company activities aimed at current and potential domestic and foreign markets.

internet marketing

Internet marketing (also called online marketing or e-marketing) includes all marketing measures that can be carried out with the help of the Internet.

IP address

IP is the abbreviation of "Internet Protocol". An IP address is a globally unique address assigned to every computer connected to the Internet.


Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are key metrics to track progress towards key objectives.


The keyword also search term or keyword is used in Internet marketing, especially in search engine marketing.


As soon as a Google user clicks on an ad and is redirected to the corresponding target page on your website, this is referred to as a click.

Price per click -> see CPC (cost per click)

click rate

Percentage of people who saw an ad or received an email and then clicked on a link and got to your website (see also CTR (click-through rate).

Conversion -> see Conversion

Conversion rate -> see Conversion Rate


Landing Page -> see entry page

Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI)

Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) can be used to recognize patterns and concepts within texts. This makes it possible to determine thematic relationships without the same terms having to appear in the texts to be compared. LSI is most likely used by search engines like Google to interpret text. Latent Semantic Indexing is the counterpart to Latent Semantic Optimization (LSO)

Latent Semantic Optimization (LSO)

Latent Semantic Optimization is used to align text to specific topics. Similar relationships between different terms are used. An example of this is the use of synonyms (homonyms) and antonyms (opposite terms).
Latent Semantic Optimization can be viewed as the counterpart to Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI).

Link bait

Bait means "bait". A link bait is an incentive to post links. The best link bait is high-quality content that is particularly up-to-date or has controversial views.
Infographics are also often used as link bait.

link farm

A collection of websites with similar content that are linked to one or more websites is also referred to as a link farm. Link farming violates Google Webmaster Guidelines and may result in a penalty.

link popularity

Link popularity is the number and quality of different links pointing to a website.
However, the pure number of links is not very meaningful. For example, if many links come from the same webpage, it will have little impact.
Therefore, advanced concepts such as domain and IP popularity are better suited to measure a website's link quality.


Link wheels are a method of providing a website with as many backlinks as possible. To do this, a series of websites are linked together so that each page points to the next. The websites in the resulting closed chain then each link to another page whose rankings are to be improved.
Link Wheels are a prohibited technique under the Google Webmaster Guidelines and may result in a penalty.

log files

Like a diary, log files record the activities of every visitor to a website. Depending on the configuration of the server, more or less data is written to the log files. There are different variants of log files. This includes, for example, the access log, in which all accesses to the server are saved. The referrer log stores the URIs from which the server was accessed. This can be used to evaluate the traffic of a website.

long tail

The term "long tail" summarizes keywords that are rarely searched for. Long-tail keywords are usually longer and consist of several terms. The term long tail is in contrast to “short head” – these are commonly searched keywords.
Example: The search query "buy induction cooker energy efficiency class A" is more likely to be assigned to the long tail, whereas "buy cooker" is a search query from the short head.


Made For AdSense

Made For AdSense pages are designed to maximize Sponsored Link clicks. Aside from the ads themselves, there is usually not much other content on the pages.

Marketing Planning / Online Marketing Plan

Seen globally, marketing planning includes all targets, strategies and measures for the successful orientation of a company on the market. Interestingly, the Internet is often only marginally considered, although in many industries a considerable part of the turnover is generated via the Internet.
Elementary components of a marketing plan are the assessment of the current market situation and the expected development. In addition, there are the goals defined by the company and strategies for how these goals are to be achieved. The goals set can be both qualitative and quantitative in nature.


A merchant is a participant in affiliate marketing. The merchant advertises his product or service on the website of the so-called affiliates.

meta tags

Meta tags are information in the header of the source code of websites, which are not displayed in the browser, but are still of high value.
The well-known meta tags include the title and the meta description of a page. This also includes robots statements such as “index” or “noindex”.

Microsite / Minisite

Microsites are narrowly defined websites that often only focus on one topic or one product. Microsites are often associated with a larger website.

Multivariable Test / Multivariate Test

In a multivariate test, two or more parameters of the object under test, such as a website, are changed to observe the effects. User data such as click rate, length of stay or other conversion-related factors for the different variants are usually evaluated as dependent variables. The varying sizes include, for example, the font color used, the font or the layout of the pages.


mod_rewrite is a module for the "Apache" web server. With the help of this module, URLs can be rewritten. This enables the use of static URLs that are generated from originally dynamically generated URLs, such as those created in content management systems. The use of static URLs is important in terms of SEO. In the worst case, dynamic URLs can lead to the creation of duplicate content if content can be accessed under several URLs.


The mozRank, which is offered by the US SEO service provider Moz, indicates the popularity of websites. The number and popularity of links from websites are used to calculate mozRank. This means that the mozRank is calculated in a similar way to the PageRank.


MySQL Server is a widely used relational database management system. MySQL is open source software. Most websites use MySQL in conjunction with the PHP language to display content dynamically.


Name server -> see DNS server


The “nofollow” attribute is used to mark links that the search engine bots should not follow. "Nofollow" is used for links in advertisements, for example.
It is also possible to mark an entire page with the robots attribute "nofollow". This tells the search engines not to follow any of the links on the page.

noframes section

Information for the use of browsers that cannot display frames can be integrated into the noframes area of ​​a page. However, most of the popular browsers now support frames.

New vs Returning Visitors

The relationship between the number of new and returning visitors provides information about the acceptance and status of a website. If a large proportion of the visitors return, this is an expression of their satisfaction.
On the other hand, new websites naturally have a particularly high proportion of new visitors.
The number of new and returning visitors should be combined with other metrics. The origin of the visitors is particularly interesting (organic search, via links, social media or direct calls). If many visitors access a website via a direct call, i.e. entering a URL, and the proportion of returning visitors is high, this speaks particularly well for the satisfaction of the visitors.

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open rate

Indicates the proportion of recipients who opened an email. This value plays an important role in email marketing. A tracking pixel is integrated into sent e-mails such as newsletters, which sends a call to the sender's server when the e-mail is opened. In this way, it can be recorded how many e-mails were actually opened.

Offpage Optimization

The term off-page optimization summarizes all SEO activities that do not take place on your own website. Off-page optimization mostly refers to building backlinks. The aim is to increase the number and quality of external links pointing to a website. Backlinks are still an important ranking factor and are included in the calculation of PageRank.

One to one marketing / personalization

The goal of one-to-one marketing is to tailor marketing measures to customers. For this purpose, customer segments are formed, each of which is characterized by certain properties. This is made possible, among other things, by the use of statistical methods in which reference is made to demographic characteristics and interests. By individualizing the marketing measures, an improvement in the reaction and conversion rate of the customers can be achieved.

Online marketing -> see internet marketing

Onpage Optimization

Onpage optimization is a part of search engine optimization (SEO). This includes any changes made to the website in question. On-page optimization includes many different areas such as technology and infrastructure, content, usability and design of a website.

Organic search results

Organic search results are determined by an algorithm based on their relevance. This is in contrast to paid search ads, where the bid for the click price is what matters most. On Google, paid search ads are positioned above and below the organic hits.


(Page-)Impressions (originally "PageViews")

Denote the number of views of any user with a page. A prerequisite for counting a page impression is the complete loading of a page. If only individual elements such as an image are loaded, one speaks of hits.
Page impressions can be combined with other key figures. For example, you can record how many page impressions take place per visit.


PageRank is an algorithm named after Google co-founder Larry Page that Google uses to rate the importance of websites.
The PageRank algorithm is based on the number and weight of links between documents on the web. The more links point to a document, such as a website, and the stronger the weight of these links, the higher the PageRank of the document.

Partial Match Domain (PMD)

Partial match domains partially match certain keyword phrases. By picking up keywords, the rankings of the page in question should be improved for the respective keywords. However, a possible positive influence on the rankings is only slight – if at all.
Partial match domains, like the exact match domains related to them, usually consist of a concatenation of several keywords connected by hyphens.

Pay Per Click (PPC)

Pay per click is a billing model commonly used in online marketing, which is billed based on the performance per click (page view). Pay per click is used, for example, for Google search advertising. Advertisers only pay when their ad is clicked. However, the ad itself (“impression”) is not billed.

Pay per lead

Pay per lead refers to the commission paid per contact made by the customer. For example, if subscribing to new newsletters is advertised as part of a marketing campaign, the advertiser only pays for the subscriptions that actually come about.

Pay per sale

Pay per sale is a similar approach to pay per lead: the advertiser pays for the deals that are made. In the case of pay per sale, the number of purchases made is used as the basis for calculating the commission.

performance marketing

In contrast to classic marketing, for which the success of a measure is difficult to measure, performance marketing uses instruments that can record customer reactions and transactions. Performance marketing is mainly used online. An important component is the success-based billing of marketing measures: For example, billing can be based on purchases made (pay per sale), clicks made (pay per click) or completed subscriptions (pay per lead).

Persona Design / Persona Marketing

Personas help to take the perspective of the users. Persona design is used to tailor a website to the needs of its visitors. For this purpose, prototypical users are defined, whose properties are then assigned to so-called personas.

Personalization -> see One-to-one Marketing

path analysis

Path analysis shows how visitors move around a website and what content they are looking at.
In this way, typical entry and exit points can be identified, which in turn allows conclusions to be drawn about user satisfaction with this content.
The results of a path analysis can be presented using a flow chart and can be the starting point for optimization measures on a website.


PHP is a popular server-side scripting language for dynamically creating websites. The abbreviation PHP stands for "PHP Hypertext Preprocessor".
PHP is often used in combination with MySQL databases. Popular content management systems like Joomla and WordPress are based on PHP.


The precision indicates the proportion of relevant search results in the total set of results returned by a search engine. For example, if a search query returns ten results, five of which are relevant, then the precision is 5/10=0.5.

POS = point of sale

What is meant is advertising at the point of sale. Strictly speaking, the point of sale defines the place where a sale takes place. This can mean, for example, a shopping center or a shop, but also a specific shelf.

Postview tracking

This term from affiliate marketing describes a possibility of provisioning those who have integrated an advertising banner on their website (affiliate) at a later point in time. The customer can still benefit if the advertisement was not clicked on immediately, but instead a conversion such as a sale takes place at a later point in time. A cookie can be used to determine whether the advertisement on the affiliate's website was previously displayed to the buyer.

4 Ps (PPPP) = product, promotion, placement, price

The four Ps "product, promotion, placement and price" stand for the tools in the marketing mix. They describe the main ways a company has to manage demand for its products and to plan and execute marketing.


Quality Reserves Freshness (QDF)

QDF is the abbreviation for "Quality Deserves Freshness" and means that the topicality of content is an important quality factor in the search. Google is repeatedly said to use QDF as a ranking factor.



Describes the formation of a ranking of all search results based on the ranking algorithms of a search engine. The higher the ranking, the greater the chance that a page will be found. The chance of a click is correspondingly higher.

noise in the design

A website is noisy when there are many elements on it that do not work well together, or when multiple elements compete for the visitor's attention using similar design tools.
A clear call-to-action is no longer recognizable in such a case. This can negatively affect the conversion rate.

Reconsideration Request

If a website has been penalized by Google, then the causes that led to the penalty must be removed. A reconsideration request can then be sent to Google. This is a request to revoke an existing penalty.

Redirect / 301 redirect / 302 redirect

A 301 redirect is a redirect in which the server sends the http status code 301.
A 301 redirect is permanent by definition, while a 302 redirect (http status 302) is merely temporary.

Referrer (referrer / referral website)

A referrer is the Internet address of the web page from which a visitor clicked a link to go to another page.
In this way, the origin of some of the website visitors can be determined. Referrer information can be recorded on the server in special referrer logs.
Directly entered URLs, on the other hand, are not recorded by referrers.


In advertising research, reach refers to the proportion of the population or a specific target group that had contact with an advertising medium at a specific point in time or that could be reached by means of an advertising measure.

relative link

A relative link only includes the path to the resource, not the domain and protocol. For example, a relative link is "/page.html". The opposite of the relative link is the absolute link.

Remarketing campaign / retargeting

With retargeting or remarketing, only those users who have previously come into contact with the advertising, the website or the products or services of a company are confronted with an advertising measure.
This increases the chance of getting users to convert. The relevant users are identified with the help of cookies.


The essential property of websites with responsive design is that these pages adapt to the possibilities of the device used. These websites can therefore be used optimally on smartphones and tablets as well as on desktop PCs. Incidentally, Google recommends responsive design in connection with the recently introduced Mobile First indexing.

Reciprocal links

Designation for reciprocal links: Reciprocal links are often used in link exchange programs. This is against Google's Webmaster Guidelines and may result in a page being penalized.


The robots.txt is a text file that is located in the root directory of a website and in which it is specified which pages and paths may be recorded by the search engine crawlers and which pages and paths are blocked for the crawlers.

ROPO effect

The ROPO effect stands for “Research Online – Purchase Offline”. A user behavior is described that is characterized by the search for information on the Internet with a subsequent offline purchase.
However, this behavior can also occur the other way around: customers go to a brick-and-mortar retailer to find out more and then buy the goods online.


The abbreviation ROI stands for Return on Investment. The profit is set in relation to the capital employed.


The abbreviation RPM stands for "Revenue Per Mille". This is used to measure the performance of served ads. The RPM is calculated from the click rate (CTR) and the "Earnings Per Click" (EPC). For example, if an ad achieves a CTR of 0.2 with an EPC of $0.50, the RPM will be 0.2 x $0.5 x 1000 = $100.


With the help of a so-called RSS feed (Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary), it is possible to subscribe to website content and have it displayed in a separate reader. It is also possible to read RSS feeds in a web browser.

RSS feed

The provision of data in RSS format is called an RSS feed. See also RSS.

Run of Site (ROS)

Run of Site (ROS) is a term used in online advertising. When the advertising format is booked, the Run of Site specification means that the booked number of ad impressions can be placed freely from specifications. Part of the ROS is also that there is no limit to the number of impressions or the duration of the impressions. There are also no specifications regarding topic or product-specific overlays. A fixed position for the banners in question will be specified so that they can appear in different places on the website.


Pageviews / Unique Pageview

A page view occurs when a visitor accesses a website or one of its subpages. Both first-time calls and reloading of pages are counted.

SERP = Search engine result page

A SERP (Search Engine Result Page) is displayed by search engines as a result of a search query. SERPs can contain different results depending on the search query. In addition to the normal "blue links", i.e. the web results, there can also be, for example, images, videos, news or local search results. Such a mixture of search results is also referred to as a universal SERP or a mashup SERP.

session ID

A session ID is used as an identifier to identify multiple related requests from a user. Several interconnected calls by a user form a session. Session IDs are usually carried along as URL parameters.

short head

Short Head refers to search terms with a high search volume and strong competition. Keywords from the short head are usually short and not very specific. Search engine optimization for keywords from the short head is more complex due to the strong competition.
The counterpart to the short head is the long tail.

visibility index

The visibility index of a website is calculated from the rankings of many different keywords that can be reached by the website in the search engine results (mostly Google). Depending on the search volume and competition, the different keywords make different contributions to the Visibility Index.
The best-known visibility indices include the Sistrix and Searchmetrics scales.


A sitemap is a hierarchically structured representation of all individual documents (pages) of an internet presence or website (page structure).
A distinction must be made between HTML and XML sitemaps: While HTML sitemaps are intended to serve as a guide for visitors, XML sitemaps ensure that all URLs on a website are recorded as completely as possible by the search engines.

site link

Sitelinks are elements within specific search results on Google and other search engines. A sitelink refers to a specific subpage of a website. Sitelinks can appear in both organic search results and search ads.


Vertical format advertising space, which is usually placed to the right of the editorial content. Skyscrapers offer a lot of space for information due to the large area. The standard dimension for a skyscraper is 120 by 600 pixels. There are also "Wide Skyscrapers" with a size of 160 by 600 pixels. Higher skyscrapers with a vertical span of 800 pixels and more can also occur.


Snippet is another name for a result played out by the search engines. A snippet usually consists of a title, a URL and a multi-line description. In some cases, there are also other elements such as rating stars, images, sitelinks and other content.

social bookmarking

If bookmarks are saved, managed, rated and shared online, this is referred to as social bookmarking. Depending on how often bookmarks are shared and how positively they are rated, positive effects can result for the websites concerned in the form of additional backlinks and new visitors.

Social Media Marketing

Social media marketing describes the use of social networks for marketing purposes. Social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+ or Instagram are used to advertise and publicize a product, service, brand or company. Social media marketing is a part of online marketing.

Stingy linking

Literally translated, Stingy Linking means something like "economical linking". This means the practice of placing very few outbound links on a page.

Search engine registration (subscription)

Registration of websites via a corresponding form with search engines.
With most search engines there is no longer any need for such a registration, or the possibility of doing so is no longer offered. In contrast to search engines, however, so-called web directories still require registration.

search engine marketing

Search engine marketing (SEM) includes all measures aimed at gaining additional visitors or customers for an online presence such as a website with the help of search engines. Part components of search engine marketing are search engine optimization (SEO) and search engine advertising (SEA).

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a part of Search Engine Marketing (SEM). SEO serves to improve a website's ranking in the results of Google and other search engines. SEO includes a wide range of measures relating, for example, to the content, technology and usability of websites.

Search engine advertising (SEA)

While search engine optimization (SEO) aims to position websites as high as possible in the organic search results through technical and content-related measures, search engine advertising (SEA) refers to the paid ads in the search results. The advertising spaces are awarded to the highest-bidder advertising customers in an auction process. In the course of the SEA, attempts are made to design search ads in such a way that they generate as many clicks as possible. In addition to the ads themselves, the landing pages associated with them also influence whether and where the ads appear on the search results pages.

search network

Ads on the Google search network appear above or below Google's organic search results. A display on other Google websites such as Maps or Shopping is also possible. In addition, ads may also appear on the pages of Google's search network partners. The search network is part of the Google advertising network.

SWOT = strengths/weaknesses analysis

The SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) is a management tool for decision-making and position determination in companies and other organizations. A four-field matrix is ​​used in the SWOT analysis, in which strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are entered. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors that come from the organization under consideration. Opportunities and threats, on the other hand, are external factors.



Template usually means the template for a website or an e-mail. Templates are used primarily in connection with content management systems (CMS) such as WordPress and Joomla. They define the layout and design of a website and can easily be filled with content. There are a large number of free templates on the web, but paid solutions are also available.

text link

Text links, for example, are placed within texts in the editorial environment and refer either to other pages or documents within the same website or to external sources. Certain terms, the so-called anchor text, are provided with a link to a specific URL.
Other types of links, such as links from images, must be distinguished from text links.

TCP (cost per thousand contacts) -> see CPT (cost per thousand)

Top Level Domain (TLD)

The Top Level Domain (TLD) forms the highest level for assigning a computer address on the Internet.

Trust Flow

Trust Flow is an SEO metric provided by the provider Majestic. The trust flow indicates the trustworthiness of the links that point to a website. The proximity of the links to websites classified as trustworthy is taken into account.

Type in Traffic

Type-in ​​traffic refers to visits to a website that come about by randomly entering a URL. Certain keywords are provided with a TLD (e.g. and entered in the address line of the browser.


TYPO3 is a content management system that can be used very flexibly. A disadvantage of TYPO3 is the relatively complex handling compared to other systems such as WordPress or Joomla, because TYPO3 requires programming knowledge in TypoScript.


Revenue by campaign

In order to be able to measure the success of online campaigns, it is important to record and allocate the sales generated by them, the orders generated and other transactions.
Many online marketing tools such as Google AdWords enable the collection of various key figures per ad or per campaign.
In online marketing in particular, it is quite easy to measure success based on campaigns. This distinguishes online marketing from other forms of advertising such as television advertising – here the attribution involves more effort because, for example, surveys have to be used to determine what led to a purchase or a transaction.

Unique Visitor

A unique visitor or unique user is an individually recorded visitor to a website within a certain period of time. Even with multiple visits, a unique visitor is only recorded once.


Upselling (also up-selling) refers to the provider's efforts to offer the customer higher quality and more expensive products or services instead of the originally selected variant of a product or service. The customer is shown the corresponding advantages of the alternative in order to persuade him to buy.


The abbreviation URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator and describes where a resource such as a website, an image or a video can be found on the Internet.
In comparison to URIs, URLs represent an expanded term because they each specify how a resource can be accessed on the network, for example by stating the required access protocol such as http://.
The abbreviation URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), on the other hand, designates an abstract or a physical resource.


The English term usability is generally translated as user-friendliness or usability. Usually one speaks of usability in connection with websites or apps. Good usability includes intuitive usability, which is based on the user's habits. An example is the division of different elements such as navigation on a website – these should be in the place where users expect them to be.

USP = unique selling proposition or unique selling proposal

The factor or factors that make a product or offering unique. The designation of the unique selling proposition is also often used.

UAP = Unique advertising proposition or Unique advertising proposal

The uniqueness of advertising a product or offer. The term communicative profiling is also common. With UAP, companies try to stand out from the competition with the uniqueness of their advertising measures.

user experience

The user experience describes the feeling that arises when using a product such as a website. An important factor influencing the user experience is usability.


Vanity Search

Vanity search is the search for your own name or company in search engines. Vanity searches are also used to find out what information about yourself or your company is available on the web.

Burned domains

Burned domains are domains that are subject to a charge due to their history and have been penalized by Google. For example, the domains may have been involved in violations of Google's webmaster guidelines.
In order to make a burned domain usable again for Google search, it is possible to submit a reconsideration request to Google. Before doing so, however, the causes that led to the domain being penalized must be eliminated.

dwell time

The length of stay provides information on how intensively visitors use the website. It is often mentioned as a key figure in connection with SEO, whereby it is assumed that a longer stay should have positive ranking effects. However, Google regularly denies such a connection.


Visible area of ​​an application or website that is actually usable. Different viewports come about primarily through the use of different devices such as smartphones, tablets or notebooks and must be taken into account when designing websites and applications.


The visits indicate the total number of visits to a website in a certain period of time. However, the number of visits does not yet provide any insight into how many different visitors actually accessed the site. For this purpose there is the key figure of unique visitors.


Wayback Machine

The Wayback Machine is a well-known internet archive. Earlier versions of websites starting in 1996 can be accessed there. For this purpose, the Wayback Machine saves snapshots of many websites and makes them available for retrieval.

web analytics

Web analytics means the continuous observation and evaluation of user movements to and on a website.
Google Analytics is one of the best-known web analytics tools, but there are also numerous other systems that are widely used, such as Matomo Analytics (formerly Piwik).

Web Beacon -> see counter pixel

web clip

A web clip is a variant of a favicon. Web clips are stored on a website's server and can be displayed on the home screen of iPhones and iPads. With the help of web clips, the respective website can then be called up directly from the home screen. So web clips work like bookmarks.

web 2.0

The term Web 2.0 stands for the further development of the web towards stronger user interaction.
The main feature of Web 2.0 is not specific technical innovations, but a different understanding of the user's role on the web: the user is no longer just a consumer of information, but also makes it available to others.

ad networks

Advertising networks or ad networks are associations of websites and online platforms on which advertisers can place ads. By bundling in an advertising network, a larger reach is achieved, and the organizational effort can also be reduced. A very well-known advertising network is the Google search network.



XHTML stands for Extensible HyterText Markup Language. This allows semantic and structural markings to be defined for a website. Unlike HTML, XHTML is based on XML syntax.


yield optimization

Yield optimization is a term from online marketing. Yield optimization aims to maximize the yield from the available online advertising space. Yield optimization is particularly interesting when working with various affiliate programs. While yield optimization is even less common in Germany, it is used much more frequently in the USA, for example.


tracking pixels

A tracking pixel is a small image that is usually played out by the server in 1*1 pixel format. Tracking pixels are integrated into websites and also into e-mails such as newsletters. When downloading a tracking pixel in the browser or mail program, user data such as the IP address is transmitted. From this, conclusions can be drawn about usage.
Tracking pixels are to be regarded as critical in relation to the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and should be mentioned in the data protection declaration.

target group

There are various ways of forming target groups for advertising measures. In most cases, demographic factors such as age, gender or region are used. Certain interests and inclinations are often also taken into account. The aim is to align an advertising measure as precisely as possible with the target group of interest.

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