The technology area is full of terms and acronyms that sometimes confuse users and even professionals with experience in the subject. To help you better understand this whole universe, we created a dictionary with the main terms and acronyms in IT. Check out!
ABR ( available bit rate ) is the average amount of data transferred per unit of time. For example, a file that has an available bit rate of 256kbit/s transfers, on average, 256,000 bits every second.
Gartner defines Advanced Analytics platforms as capable of providing an end-to-end environment for developing and deploying models. These platforms should include: (1) access to data from multiple sources; (2) data preparation, exploration, and visualization; (3) the ability to deploy models and integrate them into business processes and applications; (4) performance capabilities of the platform, project and management model; and (5) high performance scalability for both development and deployment.
Read more in our article on predictive monitoring (advanced analytics)
American National Standards Institute – American National Standards Institute.
Tomcat is a Java web server, more specifically, a servlet container .
The acronym can have several meanings, but in the computational universe, APP is the abbreviation for application or application. It is a program developed to perform a specific function, basically for the user.
Arduino is an open- source, single-board electronics prototyping platform designed with a microcontroller with built-in input/output support, a standard programming language, which originates from wiring (free hardware electronics prototyping platform ), and it is essentially C/C++. The aim of the project is to create tools that are affordable, low cost, flexible and easy to use for artists and hobbyists. Especially for those who wouldn't have access to more sophisticated controllers and more complicated tools.
Read more in our article on what is Arduino
ARPAnet ( advanced research projects agency network ) is the first packet-switched computer network. Created in 1969 by the US Department of Defense to link military bases and government research departments, it gave rise to the Internet.
The array is a group of elements with similar attributes (such as memory or disk) that can be individually addressed.
ASCII ( American standard code for information interchange ) is the international set of characters with decimal values that the computer can produce. For example: TAB=9, space=32, Letter A=65, letter a=97, number 0=48.
Amazon Web Services ( AWS) is a secure cloud services platform, offering compute power, database storage, content delivery, and other functionality to help businesses scale and grow.
B2B ( business to business ) is the expression used to indicate transactions between companies. The nature of this transaction can be resale, transformation or consumption.
Read more in our article on IT trends and new technologies that will change the B2B market
B2C ( business to customer ) is the expression used to indicate operations between a company and the final consumer.
The backbone is the main network through which all the data of all Internet clients circulates.
Backup is copying data from one storage device to another so that it can be restored in case the original data is lost, which could involve accidental deletion or data corruption.
BAM ( business activity management ) is the term that defines how we can provide real-time access to critical business performance indicators to increase the speed and effectiveness of business operations. Unlike traditional real-time monitoring, BAM will fetch information from multiple application systems as well as other internal and external sources, allowing for a broader and richer view of business activities. Learn more about BAM by accessing our post on the subject, below:
Read more in our article on BAM: Monitoring business activities
The BBS ( bulletin board system ) is a virtual environment formed by computers, modems and communication software connected to one or more telephone lines. From a basic configuration done with scripts and text files, it is possible to create your own system and connect it to others through a telephone network using a modem.
The BDE ( borland database engine ) is a database access engine developed by Borland, widely tested for use worldwide.
Big Data is a term widely used today to name very large or complex data sets that traditional data processing applications still cannot handle. Challenges in this area include: analysis, capture, data curation, searching, sharing, storing, transferring, viewing, and data privacy insights.
Read the article on 5Vs of Big Data
The BIOS ( basic input output system ) is the basic input and output system.
Business Intelligence (BI) is software for visualizing business indicators . Enables the processing of complex data to create simplified views.
Read more in our article about the differences between OpMon Dashboards and BI tools
The BIT is the acronym of the union of the words BInary digiT or binary digit. It is the smallest unit of data measurement that can be stored or transmitted in the computational universe. A bit has a single value, being zero or one, that is, true or false.
A botnet is a collection of internet-connected programs that communicate with other similar programs in order to perform tasks. It is also a collection of software agents or bots that run autonomously and automatically. The term is usually associated with the use of malicious software, but it can also refer to a network of computers using distributed computing software.
BPM ( business process management ) is business process management. This management is carried out through a systemic and general view of the organization and is based on the definition of parameters, monitoring, control and adaptation for the continuous improvement of processes. Process automation is also a goal of using BPM. To learn more about BPM, access the article on our blog by clicking on the link below:
Read more in our article on what business process management is and what it is for
The business process model notation or business process modeling notation is a record designed to define and manage processes in the business sphere. The main functionality is to facilitate the understanding of BPM. Access our post on BPMN to learn more.
Read more in our article on what you need to know about the business process model and notation – BPM
BPS ( bits per second ) is a measure of transmission or reception of bits .
BYOD ( bring your own device) is the possibility of using personal devices such as smartphones, tablets or notebooks in the workplace for use and connectivity to the corporate network. BYOD has provided an increase in productivity in companies, as employees can use their own equipment, making them more independent and willing to work.
The cache is a quick access device, internal to a system, which serves as an intermediary between an operator of a process and the storage device to which that operator accesses.
CAPEX ( capital expenditure ) designates the amount of money spent on the acquisition (or introduction of improvements) of capital goods of a given company.
OPEX ( operational expenditure ) is the capital used to maintain or improve a company's physical assets, such as equipment, property and real estate. Operating expenses are the ongoing costs to run a product, business, or system.
The Service Catalog provides a clear view of what services IT offers and how IT adds value to allocated financial resources. It offers a method for requesting or ordering published services, enabling good governance in which the main terms, conditions and controls defined therein are integrated into the organization's service delivery processes. It also allows the organization to improve service planning, delivery and support, while correctly evaluating service costs and pricing.
Read more in our article on monitoring with business acumen
CEM ( customer experience management ) is the perception of the interaction between a company and a consumer through the customer's own vision. It can be said that CEM is a consumer experience through interactions with the brand during the purchase process.
With the objective of adding high technological value to the business environment, OpServices developed OpCEM software for creating and editing robots that simulate the user's experience. Through a virtual user, the solution is configured to take all the necessary steps to carry out an activity, such as: logging in to a restricted area, registering, making a purchase in a virtual store, etc. Learn more about OpCEM by visiting the product page:
Read more in our user experience simulation article
Configuration item or configuration item is a device that can be configured for the purpose of delivering an IT service. For example: server, router, switch, access point, among others.
Configuration item attributes or configuration item attributes are metrics and indicators monitored within CIs or CIs. For example: when monitoring a server (IC) we have some indicators (AIC) that can be monitored such as: CPU, memory, disk, among others.
The nomenclatures represent the so-called 'C-level'. The full meaning is “Chief ______ Officer”, with the blank representing the area of the company the person heads:
The clock rate indicates how often a computer's processor runs. Its measurement system is in Hertz (MHz or GHz, for example).
Cloud computing refers to the use of memory and the storage and calculation capacity of computers and servers that are shared and interconnected through the internet, following the principle of grid computing. Learn more about cloud computing by visiting our blog.
Read more in our article on Cloud computing: 5 mistakes your company should avoid
A cluster consists of loosely or tightly linked computers that work together so that, in many ways, they can be seen as a single system. Learn more about how a cluster works by visiting our blog post.
Read more in our article on what a cluster is and how it works
The CMBD ( configuration management database, or BDGC) is a repository of information related to all configuration items in the IT infrastructure. The CMDB is a fundamental component of the ITIL configuration management process. The CMDB is the trusted source of configuration information for any and all components of the IT environment, including servers, routers, desktops, printers, phones, software, etc.
COBOL ( COmmon Business Oriented Language ) is an ancient programming language oriented towards business database processing.
COBIT ( control objectives for information and related technology ) helps the company to have a more controlled IT governance. It is focused on the business and aims to provide managers with a governance model that helps deliver value to IT and also manages more clearly the risks associated with the area.
Cookies are small files that are stored on your computer. They are made to store specific data of a client or website, to be accessed in the future by the web server in a faster way.
Central processor unit or central processing unit is responsible for controlling and executing computer tasks, that is, it is where all computer operations are processed.
CRM ( customer relationship management ) is an integrated customer-focused management system that brings together various processes and tasks in an organized and integrated manner.
The data center (DC) or CPD (data processing center) is an environment designed to house servers and other components such as data storage systems and network assets.
DBMS is the acronym for data base management system, in Portuguese the acronym is DBMS (database management system).
Dashboards are visual dashboards that centralize important business information. In this way, they allow you to understand the scenario in real time and make decisions based on real information that is happening now, monitored minute by minute.
Read more in our article on dashboards and visual management
The DDR ( double data rate ) is the double transfer rate.
Derived from the junction between Developer and Operations, DevOps is a software development methodology that seeks to maximize the results of IT teams. The methodology integrates the entire team of collaborators and makes communication between them more efficient, taking software development and IT teams to a new level. Companies that have their IT teams have these teams composed of professionals specialized in different technologies, languages and systems operation, ranging from HR to finance, passing through all the key sectors of the company.
Read more in our article on high performance through DevOps
Downtime is the time the system is not operational. Learn how to calculate the cost of downtime.
Read more in our article about the cost of downtime
DNS ( domain name system ) is a system that manages names and recognizes their IP numbers to make a connection. Due to DNS you can, for example, type in the browser address bar 'www.abbreviationfinder.org' to access the site instead of a bunch of numbers and dots.
Elasticsearch is an open source search tool capable of handling large amounts of data in real time. The distributed search server is based on Apache Lucene and developed in Java, using a common interface, JSON over https. Among the main advantages of the full-text search engine are the availability of data in real time ( near-realtime ), the high availability to handle large volumes of data and the storage of data in the form of documents.
Read more in our article on what is elastic search
ERP ( enterprise resource planning ) is a business management system. Its function is to unify the systems of different areas of the company, for example, instead of each area using a different system to manage its activities, an ERP solution is capable of unifying this information, making the departments integrated.
Read more in our article on ERP monitoring
It is a connection protocol for local area networks (LAN) based on sending packets.
A firewall is a device on a computer network that aims to apply a security policy to a certain point on the network.
FAQ ( frequently asked questions ) is the list of questions and answers most frequently asked by Internet users.
FTE ( full-time equivalent ) is a method of measuring the degree of involvement of an employee in the activities of an organization or solely in a given project.
FTP ( file transfer protocol ) is a fast and simple way to transfer files over the internet. It can represent both the computer that transfers the file and the FTP server.
Computer that connects two or more networks that use different internal communication protocols.
Hotspot is the name given to the place where Wi-Fi technology is available. They are usually found in public places such as cafes, restaurants, hotels and airports where it is possible to connect to the internet using any device that is prepared to communicate on a wireless network such as wi-fi.
HTML ( Hyper Text Markup Language ) is the most popular markup language on the internet.
https ( hypertext transfer protocol ) is a communication protocol that decides how two computers or programs will transmit data on the Internet. Normally, https uses port 80 to communicate in HTML language.
https ( hypertext transfer protocol secure ) is an implementation of the https protocol over an additional layer of security that uses the SSL/TLS protocol (security protocols that protect telecommunications via the internet for data transfer services). .). This additional layer allows data to be transmitted over an encrypted connection and to verify server and client authenticity using digital certificates.
The hub is the name given to the equipment where data that arrives from one or several sources converge and goes to one or several destinations, depending on the type and the command received. May include a switch and a router.
IaaS ( infrastructure as a service) is a modality where the customer hires infrastructure as a service, that is, it hires virtual servers instead of physical servers.
Read more in our article on the concept of SaaS, IaaS and PaaS and XaaS (or EaaS)
An intranet is a company's internal computer network.
The term I&O ( infrastructure & operations ) designates professionals in the areas of infrastructure and operations.
IOBVD ( infrastructure & operations business value dashboards ). Unlike the traditional systems used by IT and I&O professionals, which focus only on displaying operational results, IOBVD is able to cross this information with financial, commercial, logistical data and from different areas and present a result that indicates, for example, what was the impact on revenue generated by the unavailability of a particular application. Or, in a sales-oriented view, from a drop in online sales results, find out if the root cause of this problem is in the decrease in demand or originates from a problem in the operation or IT infrastructure. Learn more about IOBVD by accessing our post.
Read more in our article on what is IOBVD – Infrastructure Business Value Dashboards
Internet of Things (IOT) or internet of things is the term used for connecting basically anything to the internet, be it an appliance, device, sneakers, in short, anything. To learn more about IOT, access our exclusive post on the subject.
Read more in our article on IOT – Internet of Things
ITIL ( information technology infrastructure library ) is a set of best practices for managing IT services.
Read more in our IT best practices article
The IP ( internet protocol ) is a unique address that differentiates each device connected to the internet.
IPv6 is the most up-to-date version of IP, and it has more numbers and protocols. It emerged to gradually replace IPv4, which no longer supports the current IP scenario.
Java is an object-oriented, interpreted programming language. Unlike conventional programming languages, which are compiled to native code, it is compiled to bytecode (program code written in the Java language) that is executed by a virtual machine (JVMs).
JBoss is an open source application server based on the JEE (Java Enterprise Edition) platform and implemented completely in the Java programming language.
A LAN ( local area network ) is a local network that aims to exchange data within the same physical space. The limiter of the LAN network is an IP range restricted to the same, with a common netmask.
LaaS ( license as a service) is a commercialization modality where the customer definitively acquires the licenses for certain software.
OCR ( optical character recognition ) is a program used to recognize existing texts in scanned documents, making the information available for use.
M2M ( machine to machine) is the technology that allows any object to transmit data through a sensor. This sensor captures data such as geolocation, temperature, and others, and sends it over a network to software.
It is a large computer, focused on processing a large volume of information.
MariaDB is a MySQL branch database. After the acquisition of MySQL by Oracle, its developer created MariaDB to maintain high fidelity to MySQL.
MySQL is a DBMS (database management system) that uses the SQL language as an interface.
Microsoft SQL Server is a DBMS developed by Microsoft. Its main function is to store and retrieve data requested by other software applications , whether those on the same computer or those running on another computer over a network (including the Internet).
MTTR ( mean time to repair) is the average time it takes to perform a repair after a failure has occurred. That is, it is the time spent during the intervention in a given process.
MTBF ( mean time between failures ) is a metric that refers to the average time elapsed between a failure and the next time it will occur. These time lapses can be calculated using a formula that you can check by accessing our specific post on the subject.
Read more in our article on MTTR and MTBF, what are they and what are their differences?
From its installation on the Cisco router, NetFlow starts to identify data packets no longer in isolation, like other technologies, but as flows with a beginning, middle and end. When flows are identified, they are stored in the NetFlow Cache for characterization and understanding of network traffic. After 30 minutes they are erased from memory.
Read more in our article on what is Netflow and how does this technology work
NFC was created through a consortium of tech giants: LG, Motorola, Samsung, Huawei, HTC, Google, Visa, Microsoft and Intel. Cell phones that support this technology have a chip on the back of the device that communicates with other devices that have a chip equipped with NFC.
NFC allows fast connections over a short distance. Therefore, the transmission of large files is not yet the objective of this technology. This technology is based on an already widespread technology, RFID ( radio frequency identification ).
Read more in our article on how NFC technology works for payments
Oracle is a DBMS (database management system) written in C language and available on several material platforms.
P2P ( peer to peer ) is an architecture of computer networks where each of the points or nodes of the network works both as a client and as a server, allowing the sharing of services and data without the need for a central server.
PDF ( portable document format ) means portable document format.
Query is the process of extracting data from a database and presenting it in a form suitable for use.
Physical location where a set of related equipment is mounted, such as servers, routers, switches, etc.
ROI ( return on investment) is the measurement of the time required to return the amount invested in the acquisition of new technological solutions. To learn how to calculate ROI in IT projects visit our post.
Read more in our article on how to calculate ROI in IT projects
SaaS ( software as a service – software as a service) is a way of selling software where the supplier is responsible for the entire structure necessary for the availability of the system.
sFlow is a simplification of the NetFlow protocol. It is also a protocol and has the concept of Probe (agent designed to collect information directly from a network) and Collector (central server that collects datagrams from all agents to store and analyze).
Read more in our article on what is the Sflow protocol and what are its advantages
SCM ( supply chain management ) is a solution that enables the company to manage the supply chain more effectively and efficiently. It basically consists of all parties directly or indirectly related to the execution of the customer's order.
SQL ( structured query language ) is the standard declarative search language for relational databases.
Fundamental for any service provision agreement in the IT area, the SLA ( Service Level Agreement - service level agreement, or ANS) is the specification, in measurable and clear terms, of all the services that the contractor can expect from the contractor. in the contractual relationship, as well as terms of commitment, service level goals, technical support, contractual terms, among other aspects. In other words, it is a technical clarification of the contract.
It is important to make it clear that the SLA is a document required in any IT contractual relationship, being described in ABNT (Brazilian association of technical standards) NBR ISO-IEC 20000-1, and that it must be periodically reviewed for greater effectiveness. It is only with the review carried out on an ongoing basis that the contractor can be assured that the IT company will offer support at all stages of the process, which, of course, require special care and services.
Read more in our article on what SLA (Service Level Agreement) is and why it is important
The stack consists of two or more switches with the aim of managing the network through a single IP address.
The TCO ( total cost of ownership ) is the financial estimate of the direct and indirect costs related to the acquisition of a software or hardware, in addition to the costs involved to keep it running after it is acquired.
TCP/IP is a set of protocols for communication between networked computers. Its name comes from two protocols: TCP ( transmission control protocol ) and IP ( internet protocol ). The protocol suite can be seen as a layered model, where each layer is responsible for a group of tasks, providing a well-defined set of services for the upper layer protocol.
IT (information technology) and ICT (information and communication technology) correspond to a set of integrated technological resources. ICT consists of all the technical means used to process information and assist in communication, which includes hardware and software.
Also known as user experience or user experience, it is the concern of designers and developers to create applications designed for the vision and use of their users.
Read more in our article on what is the importance of UX in software development?
The URL ( uniform resource locator ) refers to the network address where a computer resource, such as a computer file or a peripheral device, is located.
The VM ( virtual machine ) consists of a software computing environment, which runs programs like a real computer, also called a virtualization process.
VPN ( virtual private network ) is a private communication network. By providing authentication and confidentiality in the transmission of data, in addition to protocols encrypted by tunneling, VPNs become more secure and reliable in communications.
XML ( extensible markup language ) is a markup language capable of describing various types of data. It is one of the subtypes of SGML ( standard generalized markup language ) and its main purpose is to facilitate the sharing of information over the internet. One of the fundamental characteristics of XML is that it allows the creation of a single infrastructure for several languages, facilitating the definition of unknown languages.
A WAN ( wide area network ) is a computer network that covers a large area such as a university, city, state or even a country.
WWW ( world wide web ) or WEB is the abbreviation for the worldwide network of computers connected in a network.
The webnar (or webinar ) is a type of web conference in which the communication is one-way only, that is, only one person expresses himself and the others watch. Interaction between participants is limited to chat only, so they can chat with each other or send questions to the speaker.
WebSphere is the name of a family of IBM software for creating and running applications based on the Java J2EE standard, also providing infrastructure for enterprise application integration.