ADP: Term used when talking about physical performance. ADP is a compound called adenosine diphosphate (adenosine diphosphate), and is the result of the decomposition of ATP (explained below) into this compound and into energy in the different organic processes and in the physical efforts made.
ATP: In the texts that refer to the metabolic processes of obtaining energy and performance during sports activities, this term appears in an almost obligatory way. It refers to adenosine triphosphate (a denosine t ri p hosphate in English) that intervenes in the process of obtaining cellular energy, and that constitutes the main source of energy of living beings and that is constantly consumed.
BCAA: Within the nutritional section and related to sports supplementation, it is very common to find these acronyms. They refer to specific amino acids, the branched chain amino acids Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine, present in a very notable proportion in skeletal muscles; and that is formed by the acronym of its name in English B ranched Chain Amino A cid .
BMI: The most logical thing is that these acronyms appear in texts written in English, since they refer to the Body Mass Index (BMI in Spanish, and which is also widely used); therefore, we are dealing with the acronym for B ody M ass I ndex. The body mass index is the relationship between the weight of a person and their height, and this data informs us about the physical state that person may have, although not very precisely, since it is not valued at any time if that weight is determined by muscle mass or fat accumulation.
BMR: Another term that often appears frequently in texts written in English, and also in Spanish. It refers to B asal M etabolic R ate, or what is the same, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). This term indicates how many calories a person needs to be able to perform the most basic functions and stay alive. In other words, the energy consumption that a person at total rest would make while their body pumps blood, breathes, generates hormones... Each person will have a different basal metabolism, since factors such as age, sex, weight and the height.
CLA: Acronym that comes from C onjugated L inoleic A cid, in Spanish Conjugated Linoleic Acid. It is a type of fat made up of a set of fatty acids from the Omega-6 family, and is widely used as a nutritional supplement. The main use of this supplement is to help lose fat accumulated in the body, since its action limits the activity of lipoprotein lipase, which is responsible for sending fat to adipocytes where it is stored.
COPD: in sports, it refers to the additional oxygen consumption that the body carries out when a demanding physical activity ends. The acronym corresponds to the English expression E xcess P ost- E xersise Oxygen C onsumption. Under normal resting conditions, our body requires low oxygen consumption to carry out its functions; however, when we finish a physical activity that has required some demand and we return to the state of rest, that oxygen consumption is increased compared to the first situation, since the body is forced to perform additional functions to restore normality after the effort.
GAP: Acronym that we usually see when we get information about the offer of activities of a sports center. The term corresponds to the acronym for Glutes, Abdominals and Legs; and it consists of a directed class in which these three areas that are so sensitive to fat accumulation are worked intensely.
HDL and LDL: When talking about nutrition, and more specifically about fats, it is common to find these two sets of acronyms. HDL refers to high-density lipoproteins (H igh D ensity Lipoprotein), and speaking a little more clearly, it is the good cholesterol that our body eliminates. On the opposite side we have the LDL, which are low density lipoproteins (Low Density Lipoprotein) , or what is the same, the bad cholesterol that accumulates in the arteries causing different cardiovascular problems.
HIIT: A very fashionable acronym at present, and which corresponds to High Intensity Interval T raining, or high-intensity interval training. Roughly speaking, we are talking about a type of training that alternates intervals of very high intensity exercise (close to the maximum heart rate), with short recovery periods that do not allow a total recovery of the body before facing the next effort interval. demanding. One of the advantages of this training is that the complete sessions of effective work (sum of periods of effort - rest) have a total duration of about 15 minutes. The disadvantage is that in order to perform HIIT you must have a minimum of physical fitness, since it is not a training system suitable for beginners.
HR: It is neither more nor less than the heart rate (H eart R ate), and is expressed in beats per minute, which in English is Beats Per Minute (BPM).
HST: These acronyms refer to a type of training, and its origin is H ypertrophy Specific T raining, in Spanish Specific Hypertrophy Training, and as we can well assume, its objective is to achieve muscle hypertrophy. This training has some necessary characteristics to achieve its objective, and they are the need to train each muscle several times a week (generally 3); a low volume of training for each muscle as a result of this increase in the frequency of weekly training, (that is, if training once a week 18 series of that muscle are performed, it is a question of distributing those 18 series among the three days); vary the number of repetitions as the weeks progress (for example, the first weeks 15 repetitions are performed and in the following ones it is lowered to 10, 5...); and, finally, as the repetitions decrease, the load to be moved increases.
IGF: When talking about the hormones that intervene in the organic processes dedicated to muscle anabolism, it is very common to come across the acronym IGF, which refers to the insulin-like growth factor (I nsulin- like Growth Factor). There are different insulin-like growth factors, but the most important in anabolic processes is IGF-1, a hormone with a structure very similar to insulin, made up of amino acids. It is one of the main responsible for the growth of children, and in adults it continues to have a notable importance in the process of muscle anabolization.
LCD: Acronyms that have appeared in a relatively recent time when talking about definition or slimming diets. Its meaning refers to the English expression Low Carb Diet , that is, low-carbohydrate diet, in which the contribution of this macronutrient is drastically reduced and replaced by proteins and fats.
LISS: If we have talked about HIIT before, now we are going to talk about a type of training that is totally opposite to this. LISS (Low Intensity Steady S tate) is a low-intensity cardiovascular workout that lasts a long time, since the minimum is set at 45 minutes. During its performance, you should work between 60 and 70% of the maximum heart rate. Despite requiring more time, it has the advantage that anyone can do it, unlike HIIT.
MAP: Refers to M aster Aminoacid P attern, Master Pattern of Amino Acids, and it is a nutritional supplement that contains the 9 essential amino acids in the optimal quantity and proportion to achieve the most efficient function possible in the muscles. These amino acids are leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan, and histidine. It has the advantage, compared to conventional protein, that it is absorbed much faster.
MCTs: MCTs are medium chain triglycerides (Medium Chain Triglycerides) that have a characteristic that makes them very suitable for use as an energy source, since our body absorbs them very easily, accelerating their use in metabolic processes and Therefore, they are more difficult to accumulate than other types of fat. They are usually marketed in the form of oil (mainly coconut), and their use is very limited.
PR: Acronym for Personal R ecord, that is, our personal record in any sporting field, which may well be a weight lifted in an exercise, a time achieved by running, swimming or cycling a certain distance, a length reached in a jump or throw... Despite the simplicity of this term, it is one of the main reasons for training for most athletes, since the motivation to continue training often involves overcoming that PR.
RM: The acronym RM appears very frequently in bodybuilding texts and tables. They refer to M aximum R epetition, and are usually accompanied by some number or some percentage. In the case of numbers, it refers to the maximum number of repetitions that we must be able to perform until reaching muscle failure in a certain exercise, for example:
ROM: Term used in the field of bodybuilding and which refers to the range of motion (R ange Of M otion) performed by a muscle during the performance of the different repetitions that make up the series of exercises. ROM will be complete when the muscle performs a full extension and contraction on each repetition. This produces a work of all the fibers that compose it. However, on other occasions it is more appropriate to use an incomplete ROM, since certain sections of the route may result in zero muscle work, or some positions may cause damage to the joints (such as fully extending the legs in the work of press).
TBC: The TBC is an activity consisting of a directed class, in which the whole body is worked by performing different exercises and using accessories such as elastic bands, steps, bosus, bars, dumbbells... The acronyms correspond with T otal B ody C onditioning, Total Body Conditioning.
TUT: Acronym used by those who like to abuse English terminology, and which is nothing more than the acronym for Time Under Tension, time under tension, and which refers to the time the muscle must remain under tension. while subjecting it to a load during an exercise. This is a factor to take into account during muscular work, since a time under tension that is too short will be totally insufficient to induce an adaptation in the muscle that translates into hypertrophy.
TRX: this training system experienced a notable boom a few years ago, and today it remains an excellent option for working out the body as an alternative to the most common workouts. The acronym comes from T otal Body R esistance E x ercise. The most striking feature of the TRX is that straps with grips are used to work the body, which are adjustable in length and must be anchored to a support point located on a plane elevated with respect to the person who is going to use them. Thanks to this system, the entire body can be worked without the need to carry weight. Currently it is also a commercial brand specializing in products for this type of training.
VO2 MAX: VO2 MAX is used to measure a person's performance in aerobic efforts, since it expresses the maximum amount of oxygen that the body is capable of consuming and taking advantage of during an effort. It is expressed in milliliters of oxygen per kilo of body weight per minute (ml/kg/min). The higher this value, the greater the ability of a person to exercise at a high rate and endure this situation of effort for longer. These values range between 20, for people with poor physical condition, up to 80 or 90, values only achievable by elite athletes.