ESD - ElectroStatic Discharge (electrostatic discharge) - an abbreviation commonly used to describe technologies, materials or tools used in enterprises or industries equipped with ESD protection equipment.
We are probably all familiar with the electrical discharge, which delivers discomfort. But for modern microelectronics, an electric discharge poses a huge danger, disabling semiconductor devices and components. Static electricity is an invisible "killer" of microelectronics, causing significant losses if its strength is underestimated. There were reports in the press that microelectronics manufacturers were losing millions of dollars due to neglect of static electricity precautions. It is a known fact that after the introduction of a set of ESD protection programs in production, the leading manufacturers of telecommunications equipment have reduced losses from marriage by half!
Despite the fact that the electrostatic discharge is a carrier of a small amount of energy, a large potential difference and a high rate of change entail the formation of currents sufficient to instantly destroy sensitive electronics or cause initially imperceptible damage to the crystal. The consequence of such damage is the degradation of parameters - a gradual failure, which is extremely difficult to localize. The result is financial losses, sometimes accompanied by a loss of reputation. To prevent problems, it makes sense to equip the workplace with antistatic protection.
Alas, many master repairmen in the service departments do not apply measures to protect against electrostatic charge. At first glance, it seems that nothing happens when you touch the electronic board, but simply touching the microcircuit with your hand can be a mortal danger to the part. A person walking on a carpet is capable of generating 15,000 V on the body! At the same time, a person does not feel the discharge that occurs at a voltage of less than 3500 V. For modern microcircuits, a potential of 30 V is fatal.
Often, the breakdown of the discharge current does not lead to an instantaneous failure of the electronic device, but after some time the device suddenly fails. This suggests that as a result of the discharge, a partial destruction of the thinnest conductor in the microcircuit occurred. The probability of its failure in the near future increases dramatically. All this leads to additional material costs for the elimination of malfunctions, defects, warranty repairs.