France Abbreviations

FR is the abbreviation for France, the 42nd largest country in the world. Officially the French Republic, France is a country located in Europe, bordering 7 countries – Andorra, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, and Switzerland. Paris is the capital city of France. Top 10 biggest cities are Paris (population: 2,138,540), Marseille (population: 794,800), Lyon (population: 472,306), Toulouse (population: 433,044), Nice (population: 338,609), Nantes (population: 277,258), Strasbourg (population: 274,834), Montpellier (population: 248,241), Bordeaux (population: 231,833), and Lille (population: 228,317).

Country Profile

  • Capital: Paris
  • Language: French
  • Area: 640,679 km2
  • Population: 67,022,011
  • Currency: Euro (EUR), CFP franc (XPF)
  • Time zone: UTC+1
  • Calling code: 33
  • ISO 2-Letter Abbreviation: FR
  • UN 3-Letter Abbreviation: FRA
  • Internet TLD: .fr
  • State Government Website: http://france.fr

Map of France

List of France Acronyms

The most commonly used abbreviations about France are FR which stands for France and XPF which means CFP franc (France currency). In the following table, you can see all acronyms related to France, including abbreviations for airport, city, school, port, government, and etc.

FR: France

Abbreviation Meaning
AAF Académie d’Agriculture de France
AAF Académie d’Armes de France
AFL Acemai France Logique
ACTIF Adult Cultural Term in France
AGF Agen, France – La Garenne
AFIN Agence France – Presse Newswires: International
AFT Agence France Tresor
AFP Agence France-Presse
AAF Aigle Azur, France
AFRIKAANS Air France
AFR Air France
AF Air France
AFI Air France Industries
AJA Ajaccio, Corsica, France – Campo Dell Oro
AVTF Alcatel Vacuum Technology France
ACCF Alfa Classic Club de France
AFF Alimentation Fine de France
AFRC All France Rugby Club
AEF Allons en France
ACCF American Car Club de France
ALF American LaFrance LLC
ATF Amicale Tricyclecariste de France
ASFA Amitiés Solidarité France Afrique
NCY Annecy, France – Annecy-Meythe
AEF Annuaire des Entreprises de France
AWF Annuaire Web France
AEF Artisans Ebénistes de France
ACFI Asociacion Chileno Francesa de Profesionales
AAAF Association Aeronautique et Astronautique de France
APHIF Association de Pharmacie Hospitalière de l’Île de France
AAF Association des Accidentés de France
AIF Association des Industriels de France
AIVF Association des Ingénieurs des Villes de France
AMF Association des Maires de France
AMGVF Association des Maires des Grandes Villes de France
AMIF Association des Médecins Israélites de France
AMAF Association des Musées Automobiles de France
AOF Association des Optométristes de France
AOF-2 Association des Optométristes de France
APF Association des Paralysés de France
ARF Association des Régions de France
ASF Association des Sclérodermiques de France
ASF Association des Scootéristes de France
ATTF Association des Techniciens Superieurs Territoriaux de France
ATF Association des Tunisiens en France
AFUF Association Française des Urologues de France
FPER Association France Parkinson
FP Association France Parkinson
AFS Association France Spondylarthrites
AFPS Association France-Palestine Solidarite
AHF Association Hémochromatose France
AHF Association Huntington France
AMFT Association Mediterraneenne France Turquie
ANAF Association Nouvelle Acropole France
AOFV Association Odontologique France VietNam
ARIF Association pour le Retablissement des Institutions et Oeuvres Israelites en France
APAC Association Professionnelle des Agents Commerciaux de France
ARCIF Association Régionale des Castors d’Ile de France
ASMF Association Sportive Motocycliste de France
ATG Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France
AVF Association Végétarienne de France
AGF Assurances Générales de France
AAF Ateliers d’Art de France
ARF Atlantic Research France
ACF Automobile Club de France
ASF Autoroutes du Sud de la France
ACF Aviation Club de France
AVN Avignon, France – Caumont
ACF Ax Club de France
BAF Ban Asbestos France
BPF Banco Popular France
BHFM Banque de Détail hors France Métropolitaine
BDF Banque de France
BCF Bantam Club de France
BCF Barchetta Club France
BCF Baseball Club de France
BIA Bastia, Corsica, France – Poretta
BFC Bati France Construction
BMWMCF Bavarian Motor Works Moto Club France
BHF Belges Habitant en France
BDF Bergère de France
BHCF Bergers Hollandais Club de France
BBF Bernard Bruche France
BZR Beziers, France – Beziers-Vias
BIQ Biarritz, France – Parme
BHF Bibliographie de l’Histoire de France
BDF Bibliothèque de France
BNF Bibliothèque Nationale de France
BBF Black Bass France
BWF Blackwater France
BBF Body Board France
BFP Bois France Panneaux
BJF Bon Jovi France
BOD Bordeaux, France – Merignac
BHCF Bowhunter Club de France
BES Brest, France – Guipavas
BVE Brive-La-Gaillarde, France – Laroche
BBF Bulletin des Bibliotechques de France
BRTF Bureau de Representation de Taipei en France
BBF Business Base France
BBF Buzzerbeater France
CFR Caen, France – Carpiquet
CLYS Calvi, Corsica, France – Ste Catherine
CLY Calvi, Corsica, France – Ste Catherine
CCF Camion Club de France
CCDF Camping Club de France
CFI Canal France International Audiovisual and TV Company
CSF Cancer Support France
JCA Cannes, France – Mandelieu
CCF Carcassonne, France – Salvaza Airport
CCFR Catalogue Collectif de France
CMN Catalogue des Manuscrits Notés des Bibliothèques Publiques de France
CVFS Cavaliers Vétérans France
CVF Cavaliers Vétérans France
CHF Centre d’Études Homéopathiques de France
CFT Centre France Traitement
CMOF Centre Machines Outils France
CPIF Centre Photographique d’Ile-de-France
CEF Centre pour les Etudes en France
CFA Cercle France Afrique
CNF Cercle Nautique de France
CPF Cereal Partners France
CMF Chambery, France – Chambery Aix-Les-Bains
CCIIF Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie Israel-France
CCSF Chambre de Commerce Suisse En France
CSCCF Chambre Syndicale du Carreau Céramique de France
CHF Chambres d’Hôtes en France
CFU Championnat de France Universitaire
CPF Chance pour la France
CCCF Chaos Computer Club France
CDF Charbonnages de France
CFIJ Charley Frances Ivan Jeanne
CHRISTIAN Chateauroux France
CHR Chateauroux France
CER Cherbourg, France – Maupertus
CQF Cheval Qualité France
CCCF Chevrolet Corvair Club de France
CFX China France Express
CDF Chirurgien Dentiste de France
CFC Chrysler France Club
CUF Cites Unies France
CFE Clermont-Ferrand Aulnat France
CARF Club Alfa Romeo de France
CBF Club Bugatti France
CCF Club Citroën France
CCF Club Corrado France
CDF Club Dinky France
CFF Club Fiat de France
CGF Club Gymnique de France
CLF Club Lotus France
CMF Club Maserati France
CMF Club Mini France
CMIDF Club Mouche Ile de France
CPF Club Porsche France
CVFS Club Vedette France
CVF Club Vedette France
CLF Colégio Luso-Francês
CMF Collectif des Musulmans de France
CFT Collectif France Tricot
CDF Collège de France
CERF Collège des Enseignants en Radiologie de France
CMF Collège Marie-De-France
CPJF Comité des Parcs et Jardins de France
CSF Comité des Salines de France
CNFF Comité National pour le Fleurissement de la France
CAEF Communautés et Assemblées Évangéliques de France
CBF Compagnons du Bâtiment de France
CMF Confédération Musicale de France
CIPF Congresul International al Profesorilor de Franceza
CDF Connaissance et Découverte de la France
CGF Conseil des Gabonais de France
CDCF Conseil du Commerce de France
CRIF Conseil Représentatif des Institutions Juives de France
CCEF Conseillers du Commerce Exterieur de la France
CMIDF Construction Moderne Ile de France
CGF Consul Général de France
CSF Contexte de la Sexualité en France
CFM Convention France Maghreb
CFU Convention France-UNESCO
CBF Coordination des Berbères de France
CLF Coordination Lesbienne en France
CCF Corvette Club de France
CPF Couleurs et Peintures de France
CDF Coupe de France
CVFS Courchevel France
CVF Courchevel France
CCF Credit Commercial de France
CCF Crédit Commercial de France
CFF Crédit Foncier de France
CIF Crédit Immobilier de France
CLF Crédit Local de France
CDF Croisières de France
CVFS Cuisine et Vins de France
CVF Cuisine et Vins de France
CPF Cuisines Prestige de France
DPFF Danone Produits Frais France
DAF Data Automation France
DDFC Défense de France Culture
DFT Delabre-France-Tôlerie
DBF Delegation des Barreaux de France
DFI Demeures de France Investissements
DMF Désinfection Médicale France
DAOS Détachement ALAT des Opérations Spéciales (French: Detachment for Special Operations; France)
DCF Diaspora de la Chine en France
DIJ Dijon, France – Longvic
DIFM Diplôme des Iles de la France Métropolitaine
DMF Diplôme des Moulins de France
DFAE Direction des Français de l’Etranger et des Étrangers en France
DMF Direction des Musées de France
DCF Dirigeants Commerciaux de France
DGF Distributeur Grossiste de France
DCF Dobermann Club de France
DCF Doggen Club de France
DDF Doulas de France
ENF Éclaireurs Neutres de France
EEDF Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France
EGD EDF Gaz de France Distribution
EDF Electricité de France
ERD Électricité de France Réseaux de Distribution
ERDF Electricité Réseau Distribution France
ELF Energie Liquide de France
EDMF Enfants Du Monde France
EFISGA England France Ireland Scotland Germany and Aboriginal Lands
EFMS Equipe de France Militaire de Ski
ECF Espace Campus France
EPFF Espace Pedagogie Formation France
ELF Essence Lubrificant France
ECF Experts-Comptables et Commissaires aux Comptes de France
FRENCH-AIR-FORCE Fédération des Aveugles et Handicapés Visuels de France
FAF Fédération des Aveugles et Handicapés Visuels de France
FEEFS Federation des Entreprises et Entrepreneurs de France
FMF Federation des Medecins de France
FMF Federation des Mutuelles de France
FSPF Féderation des Syndicats des Pharmaceutiques de France
FFDF Fédération Flying Disc France
FFM Fédération France Monocycliste
FHF Fédération Hospitalière de France
FNAF Federation Nationale des Aphasiques de France
FEDGHAF Federation of Ghanaian Associations in France
FPF Federation Photographique de France
FPF Fonciere Paris France
FDF Fort De France, Martinique – Fort De France
FFCC Fort Frances Chamber of Commerce
FIMF Fortis Investment Management France
FELLOW France
F France
FOUL France
FRACTION France
FLUNKED France
FULL France
FATHER France
FR France
FRA France
FRENCH-AIR-FORCE France Aux Français
FAF France Aux Français
FBBI France Bleu Breizh Izel
FBF France Boomerang Federation
FBI France Britain Ireland
FCI France Cooperation International
FHE France Hydro Electricite
FIIT France India Information Technology
FIST France Innovation Scientifique et Transfert
FIP France Inter Paris
FKKH France Kenpo Kai Honbu
FR3 France Régions 3
FSRA France Street Rod Association
FTN France Tele Numerique
FAINT France Telecom
FT France Telecom
FTML France Telecom Mobile Liban
FTTI France Telecom Technologies Investissements
FTRB France Tenshin Ryu Battodo
FD France-Diplomatie
FKT Frances Kitching Trust
FTM Frances the Mute
FLB Francesca Lia Block
FCOM Francesco WarCry Oscuro Martigen
FSFF Free Software Foundation France
FCF Fregate Club de France
FNIDF Front National Ile-De-France
FMSF Fuji Medical Systèmes France SA
GDF Gaz De France
GRDF Gaz Reseau Distribution France
GTF Get to France
GLOF Grande Loge de France
GLF Grande Loge de France
GNB Grenoble, France – St Geoirs
GCF Groupe Canada France
HRCF Historic Racing Club de France
HSF Hotel San Francesco
IDF Ile De France
IDFI Ile de France Immobilier
IHF Ingénieurs Hospitaliers de France
IDN Institut Industriel du Nord de la France
IUF Institut Universitaire de France
IFEA Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos
IFCF Inter Fraternity Council of France
IFA Invest in France Agency
JCF Janty Club France
KPCOFGS King Phillip Crossed Over France Going South
LRH La Rochelle, France – Laleu
LFA LaFrance Associates, LLC
LCF Lancia Club France
LVA Laval, France
LEH Le Havre, France – Le Havre
XDB Lille, France
LIG Limoges, France – Bellegarde
LRT Lorient, France – Lann-Bihoue
LDES Lourdes/Tarbes, France – Tarbes International
LDE Lourdes/Tarbes, France – Tarbes International
LYS Lyon, France – Satolas
MFI Malaysia France Institute
MATIF Marche A Terme International de France
MISTRESS Marseilles, France – Marseille-Provence
MRS Marseilles, France – Marseille-Provence
MFVM Mary Frances Varallo Ministries
MMS-F Matra Marconi Space-Toulouse, France
MGF Médecins Généralistes de France
MCDF Mehari Club de France
MOF Meilleur Ouvrier de France
MBF Mercedes Benz de France
ETZ Metz/Nancy, France – Frescaty
MCCF Mission Control Centre France
MPL Montpellier, France – Frejorgues
MCF Morgan Club de France
MPF Mort pour la France
MCF Motobécane Club de France
MPF Mouvement pour la France
MLH Mulhouse, France – Mulhouse
MCF Mustang Club de France
MAAF Mutuelle d’Assurance des Artisans de France
NFJ Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn Syndrome
NTE Nantes, France – Nantes-Chateau Bougon
NCE Nice, France – Cote D’azur
NGF Nivellement General de la France
OCCF Opel Classic Club de France
ONF Orchestre National de France
PFP Paris France Paramoteur
PAR Paris, France
CDG Paris, France – Charles De Gaulle
JDP Paris, France – Issy Les Moulineaux
ORY Paris, France – Orly
PFCE Partenariat France Chine Electricite
PSDF Parti Socialiste De France
PAF Patrouille Aérienne de France
PSF Pencak Silat of France
PGX Perigueux, France
PGF Perpignan, France – Llabanere
PMF Pierre Mendes-France
PCF Piper Club France
PUF Presses Universitaires de France
UIP Quimper, France – Pluguffan
RFE Radio France Evangile
RFI Radio France Internationale
RFO Radio France Outremer
RFI Radio-France Internationale
RJF Ransomes Jacobsen France
RMF Rassemblement des Musulmans de France
RIF Rassemblement pour l’Indépendance de la France
RPF Rassemblement pour La France
RWF Rassemblement Wallonie-France
RIF Rencontres de l’Ichtyologie en France
RDF Renesas Design France
RNS Rennes, France – St Jacques
RFB Reno France Batiment
ROF Republic Of France
RFF Reseau Ferre de France
RFO Reseau France Outre-Mer
RHF Réseau Hommes France
RIF Réseaux en Ile-de-France
RSF Reseaux Satellites de France
RNF Réserves Naturelles de France
RHF Résidences Hôtelières de France
RCF Retriever Club de France
ROF Reunion des Operas de France
RHF Revue Hospitalière de France
RFG Robert Frances Group
RHF Roller Hockey France
URO Rouen, France – Rouen /Boos Airport
RMF Royal Moto France
SSC SAAB Sport Club (car club; France)
DOL Saint Gatien airport, France
SJF Saint Jane Frances
SFL Santé France-Laos
SMF Scouts Musulmans de France
SCC SEAT Club Champenois (Champagne, France)
SIF Secours Islamique France
SSF Seismograph Service France
SSF Semaines Sociales de France
SSF Séniors Sourds de France
SEF Sharp Electronics France
SMF Sharp Manufacturing France
SHF Siberian Husky France
SAMF Société Archéologique du Midi de la France
SAF Société Astronomique de France
SBF Société Botanique de France
SCAF Societe Centrale d’Aviculture de France
SHF Societe de l’Histoire de France
SPPEF Société de Protection des Paysages et de l’Esthétique de la France
SELAF Société des Études Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France
SVF Société des Vins de France
SEF Société Entomologique de France
SGF Société Géologique de France
SHF Societe Herpetologique de France
SMF Société Mathématique de France
SMF Société Météorologique de France
SMF Société Mycologique de France
SOAF Society of Authors, France
SPFA Solidarite Protestante France-Armenie
SOF South of France
SCUF Sporting Club Universitaire de France
SLKF St. Louis King of France
SXB Strasbourg, France – Entzheim
SSFCR Suore Scolastiche Francescane Di Cristo Re
SNF Syndicat des Naturalistes de France
SNTF Syndicat des Naturalistes Taxidermistes de France
SOF Syndicat des Orthoptistes de France
SNOF Syndicat National des Ophtalmologistes de France
SNTF Syndicat National des Téléphériques de France
TFF Task Force France
TFI Team France Inshore
TFIS TEC France Imaging Systems
TDF Telediffusion de France
TCF Terrot Club de France
TCF Texan Club de France
TLS Toulouse, France – Blagnac
TDF Tour de France
TFV Tour de France à la Voile
TDFC Tour De France Challenge
TFJ Tour de France de Jonathan
TCF Touring Club de France
TUF Tours, France – St Symphorien
TMMF Toyota Motor Manufacturing France
TVF Trans Val de France
TBF Transferts Banque de France
TLF Transport et Logistique de France
TMF Trinity Mother Frances
TCF Triumph Club de France
THRF Trophée Historique des Régions de France
UCF Union Climatique de France
UFF Union des Fanfares de France
UOF Union des Océanographes de France
UFF Union Financière de France
UFV Union France Valais
UIF Union Infirmieres France
UNPF Union Nationale des Pharmacies de France
UOF Union Ornithologique de France
URF Union Routiere de France
USCF Union Sportive des Cheminots de France
USRTL Union Syndicale des Rouisseurs-Teilleurs de Lin de France
VCF Van’s Club de France
VCF Venture Club de France
VCF Vespa Club de France
VDFY Vie De France Yamazaki
VEF Vivre En France
VNF Voies Navigables de France
VCF Volvo Club de France
VFE Voyageurs France Europe
WTF Went to France
ZIF Zublin Immobiliere France

Geography

France consists of three geographical regions: the lowland areas in the northwest, the highland area Massif Central in the south, and the Pyrenees and Alps mountains in the southwest and southeast. The landscape is intersected by the great rivers Rhône, Loire and the Seine. These have been important transport routes for many centuries. The Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts consist of cliffs and elongated sandy beaches and have many ports where large commercial cities have emerged.

In the north of the country, the climate is typically North Atlantic, with much rainfall throughout the year and little differences between seasons. Further south is the typical Mediterranean climate, with less rainfall and warmer summers. After many years of unregulated emissions from the industry, large parts of the drinking water sources in the country are heavily polluted. The emissions have also led to acid rainfall and reduced air quality in the larger cities. France is among the countries in the world that emit the most CO2.

History

The area that is now France was incorporated into the Roman Empire 50 years BC, after fierce battles between Romans, Celts and Gauls. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 400s, the Franks took over power in the area. This led to the Frankish empire under Charles the Great in the 8th century. The empire was divided by the end of the 900s, and France was divided into several smaller kingdoms that were in constant conflict with each other. For several hundred years there was a clear distinction between the southern and northern areas. Only after the Hundred Years War against England (1337-1453) was France united as a more or less unified country.

After the Reformation in the 16th century, the country was thrown into many religious wars, which were replaced by the French Revolution of 1789 in which tens of thousands of people were killed. Revolutionary ideas of freedom, equality and brotherhood to influence politics throughout the world. A few years later, Napoleon appointed himself Emperor of France. Napoleon waged a number of wars against other European powers, until he was himself defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

During a new revolution in 1870, the monarchy was abolished. At the same time major social reforms were introduced, France became a leading industrial power and gained several colonies in Africa. The country participated on the victorious side in both world wars, and in the post-war period emerged as a key player in both European and international politics.

Society and politics

France has a semi-presidential government, which is a mixture of presidential and parliamentary. The president is the head of state, controls much of the government’s policy and can appoint and cast the government. At the same time, Parliament can also cast the government, but not the president, who is directly elected.

French politics has long been characterized by moderate right-wing and left-wing alliances, switching to having presidential and government powers. In recent years this has changed. The two main opponents of the previous election were not the traditional parties, but the outer-right party National Collection and a new center party, En Marche, with Emmanuel Macron in the lead. Macron won the 2017 presidential election and won a majority in parliament.

The government apparatus has traditionally played a strong role, and the public sector is very large. This is expensive for the state, but also leads to France having one of the world’s best health care systems. The country has one of Europe’s largest immigrant populations, and in several of the larger cities, the authorities are struggling with integration. Internationally, France has been one of the most important countries in the development of the EU, and France has a lot of power through its permanent seat on the UN Security Council. France is also a member of the NATO Defense Alliance.

Economics and Commerce

France is one of the world’s largest economies. In recent years, traditional industries such as textile production and steel extraction have given way to high technology, the computer industry and space technology. A varied agriculture makes France one of the world’s largest exporters of agricultural products.

Nevertheless, France has struggled financially since the beginning of the 2010s. After the financial and euro crisis, economic growth has stagnated, while unemployment has increased. A highly regulated labor market is considered by some as a cause. In recent years, therefore, the government has focused on deregulating the labor market, especially under Macron.

France has had huge budget deficits, much due to an expensive and heavy-handed welfare system. The state has traditionally had a large stake in the most important industries. To cover the deficits, more and more sectors have been privatized. Both labor market liberalization and privatization face strong protests from the powerful unions.

France has also been forced to raise large loans to cover its budget deficits, and foreign debt has at times been 96-97 per cent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP).

UN RPGs

The UN Association is offering a role-playing game for the 2019-20 school year in which students will try to resolve a conflict in the Security Council (Iran and the nuclear issue). France is a permanent member of the Security Council, and the sections that follow are information related to this game.

Foreign policy and relations with other countries in the Security Council

France is an important member of both NATO and the EU, and supports these institutions’ common policies in many areas. At the same time, the country gives priority to the UN and its efforts to achieve international cooperation based on international law. Despite this, France is not afraid to go its own way if the country feels the need.

France has a close dialogue with the other veto powers, and also has a close relationship with the EU member Germany, who is currently also a member of the Security Council. Russia and France are often opponents of the Security Council, and are basically far from each other when it comes to the view of human rights and how active the UN should be. At the same time, France sells some advanced military equipment to Russia, something the US and other Western countries are not very excited about. Relations with Russia have worsened after the Ukraine conflict, and France stands with the rest of the EU in terms of financial sanctions against Russia as a result.

China and France, too, are far apart in the view of the UN and its relation to human rights. Nevertheless, there is a great degree of mutual respect and dependence between the two countries. In Africa, France has a particularly close relationship with countries that were previously French colonies.

Compared to Iran, France was one of the countries involved in the construction of the first civilian nuclear plant in the country (Bushehr) before the Islamic Revolution in 1979. Although this work was interrupted, with significant financial losses for Iran, the two countries retained the contact and a certain technological nuclear cooperation also in the time afterwards.

Tips

France is one of the three major EU countries that negotiated the nuclear deal with Iran in 2015. The country still supports the agreement, but has been somewhat more critical than the other EU countries in terms of the fate of the agreement in the long term. When Israel announced in April 2018 that they had stolen thousands of documents and data files from a warehouse in Tehran proving that Iran continued to have a secret nuclear weapons program even after 2010 (the so-called Amad Archive), the French president went out and said that the US and the EU together should negotiate a much stricter nuclear deal with Iran from 2025. The French president also felt that Europe had to support America’s demands to Iran more strongly on withdrawal from regional conflicts in the Middle East. Furthermore, France also believed that Iran had to quickly accept reductions in its missile and missile program.

While the French president made his comments on the Amad revelations, other European leaders believed that the documents in the archive – provided they were genuine – did not prove that Iran had continued its military weapons program after the nuclear agreement was signed in 2015. The archive was therefore indirect evidence that Iran now complied with the agreement.

France is working with the United Kingdom and Germany to stack on its feet the alternative trade mechanism INSTEX, which will protect trade with Iran against US penalties. INSTEX will have its headquarters in Paris, and currently contains mechanisms for dealing with food and medicines. Iran’s message to the EU and France is that INSTEX is completely insufficient as long as no trade in Iranian oil is included. If oil is included in INSTEX, Europe will face even stronger opposition to the United States, as oil sanctions are one of America’s most important means of pressure against Iran in the ongoing conflict. Should oil trade not be included in INSTEX, Iran threatens to further increase the enrichment of uranium, thus breaking one of its most central obligations in the nuclear agreement. France, together with the other EU countries, must consider whether INSTEX should include oil trade. The EU has allowed countries outside Europe to participate in INSTEX – Russia and China included.

Like the other EU countries, France is also critical of what they perceive as Iranian actions against dissidents living in exile in Europe, and the country supports EU sanctions against Iran as a result.

France, along with several other EU countries, join the Combined Maritime Forces naval force, which is based in Bahrain to patrol parts of the Persian Gulf to prevent various types of crime at sea (drug trafficking, piracy, terrorism). The US has suggested that the force could act as an escort for merchant ships sailing through the Strait of Hormuz, which France fears could further provoke Iran and further help European countries also be drawn into the fierce confrontation with the country the US wants. France is currently negative to join the US-led force.

France is positive about the proposal to create a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East. However, the country is not pushing for the zone to be created until there is greater agreement among the countries in the region about the right time.

France is also one of the countries that developed its nuclear weapons before the Non-Proliferation Treaty came into force in 1970. It is believed that the country today has approx. 300 nuclear warheads in their arsenal. France has always believed that deterrence is the most appropriate means of preventing war and the further proliferation of nuclear weapons. For this reason, France believes that it is appropriate to maintain nuclear weapons for the time being. It is not appropriate to abolish their own nuclear weapons through international agreements as long as the far greater nuclear powers of the United States and Russia continue to maintain their large lead in the number of weapons. France must be prepared to receive criticism for failing to disarm such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty obliges nuclear weapons states to do.

There is little discussion in France about the role of nuclear weapons in its defense.