Canada Abbreviations

CA is the abbreviation for Canada, the 2nd largest country in the world. Canada is a country located in North America, bordering United States of America. Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. Major cities include Toronto (population: 2,600,011), Montreal (population: 1,600,012), Calgary (population: 1,019,931), Ottawa (population: 812,118), Edmonton (population: 712,380), Mississauga (population: 668,538), North York (population: 636,011), Winnipeg (population: 632,052), Vancouver (population: 600,012), and Scarborough (population: 600,013).

Country Profile

  • Capital: Ottawa
  • Language: English, French
  • Area: 9,984,670 km2
  • Population: 37,602,092
  • Currency: Canadian dollar (CAD)
  • Time zone: UTC−3.5 to UTC−8
  • Calling code: 1
  • ISO 2-Letter Abbreviation: CA
  • UN 3-Letter Abbreviation: CAN
  • Internet TLD: .ca
  • State Government Website:

Map of Canada

List of Canada Acronyms

The most commonly used abbreviations about Canada are CA which stands for Canada and CAD which means Canadian dollar (Canada currency). In the following table, you can see all acronyms related to Canada, including abbreviations for airport, city, school, port, government, and etc.

CA: Canada


Abbreviation Meaning
ALPHABET Aboriginal Business Canada
ANAC Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada
APMR Accreditation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Representatives of Canada
ASMAC Adhesives and Sealants Manufacturers Association of Canada
AINC Affaires Indienne et du Nord Canada
APECA Agence de Promotion Économique du Canada Atlantique
ARCHIVE Agence du Revenu du Canada
ARC Agence du Revenu du Canada
ABTC Agribiotech Canada, Inc.
AC Air Canada
ACPA Air Canada Pilots Association
AFAC Air Force Association of Canada
ACRL Alaska Canada Rail Link
ADLC Alberta Distance Learning Centre (Alberta, Canada0
XFS Alexandria, Ontario, Canada – Alexandria / via Rail Service
ARCC Alfa Romeo Club of Canada
AFPC Alliance de la Fonction Publique du Canada
AMEC Alliance of Manufacturers and Exporters Canada
ALPHABET America Britain Canada
ACSCC American Cocker Spaniel Club of Canada
AFCC American Friends of Canada Committee
ANC Anglican Network in Canada
ADLC Animal Defence League of Canada
ANAC Animal Nutrition Association of Canada
ABAC Antiquarian Booksellers Association of Canada
ACSCC Antique and Classic Snowmobile Club of Canada
AELC Appleton Electric Limited Canada
AN Archives Nationales du Canada
AE Armed Forces Canada
ANAVETS Army, Navy & Air Force Veterans in Canada
ARCHIVE Arthritis Research Centre of Canada
ARCC Arthritis Research Centre of Canada
ARC Arthritis Research Centre of Canada
AIIC Associate of the Insurance Institute of Canada
ALPHABET Association Botanique du Canada
ALPHABET Association des Bèegues du Canada
ABSCS Association des Bibliothèques de la Santé du Canada
AEIC Association des Étudiant s Infirmiers(ières) du Canada (Canadian Nursing Student’s Association)
AFMC Association des Faculté de Médecine du Canada
AIIC Association des Infirmières et Infirmiers du Canada
AMTEC Association for Media and Technology in Education in Canada
AND Association for the Neurologically Disabled of Canada
AFPC Association of Faculties of Pharmacy in Canada
APOC Association of Postal Officials of Canada
ARUCC Association of Registrars of the Universities and Colleges of Canada
AREC Association of Romanian Engineers in Canada
ABTC Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada
ACPBA Atlantic Canada Pipe Band Association
ACSEC Atlantic Canada Sustainable Energy Coalition
ACTRA Atlantic Canada Trail Riding Association
ACWTC Atlantic Canada World Trade Centre
AECL Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
B-AND-WC Babcock & Wilcox Canada
BACHELOR Baking Association of Canada
BCA-CA Balanda Community Association of Canada
YBAS Banff, Alberta, Canada
YBA Banff, Alberta, Canada
BCNE Bank of Canada Non-Energy
BBCC Baptist Bible College Canada
BGICL Barclays Global Investors Canada Limited
BCC Beauceron Club of Canada
BSDCC Belgian Shepherd Dog Club of Canada
BLCA Bell Canada
XVV Belleville, Ontario, Canada – Belleville / via Rail Service
BBBSC Big Brothers Big Sisters of Canada
BFFC Bollywood Film-Fare Canada
BACHELOR Boomerang Association of Canada
XFV Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Brantford / via Rail Service
BCC Breastfeeding Committee for Canada
BACHELOR Brewers Association of Canada
BEAC Broadcast Educators Association of Canada
BEAC Broadcast Educators of Canada
BCC Buddhist Churches of Canada
BOMAC Building Owners and Managers Association of Canada
BACHELOR Bureau d’Assurance du Canada
CTCC Cairn Terrier Club of Canada
CCNGP Calpine Canada Natural Gas Partnership
XAZ Campbellton, New Brunswick, Canada – Campbellton
CANUS Canada – United States
CUSLI Canada – United States Law Institute
CABRI Canada Africa Business Resources International
CAPBA Canada Asia Pacific Business Association
CBSC Canada Business Service Centre
CCE Canada College of Education
CCELC Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification
CCDR Canada Communicable Disease Report
CCS-AND-CF Canada Cuba Sports and Cultural Festivals
CCM Canada Cycle & Motor
CCM Canada Cycle Motor
CANADA Canada Department of Agriculture
CANDU CANada Deuterium Uranium
CD Canada Dry
CEEDA Canada East Equipment Dealers’ Association
CEBC Canada Egypt Business Council
CEMO Canada Emergency Measures Organization
CEIU Canada Employment and Immigration Union
CFAC Canada Family Action Coalition
CAFC Canada Firearms Centre
CFFN Canada Forum for Nepal
CFTA Canada Free Trade Agreement
CANG Canada Goose
CGBC Canada Green Building Council
CHSA Canada Health Spending Account
CIDT Canada Ice Dance Theatre
CIES Canada Immigration and Education Services
CIC Canada Immigration Center
CIRB Canada Industrial Relations Board
CJ97 Canada Jamboree 1997
CLRB Canada Labour Relations Board
CLAB Canada Lands Administrative Boundary
CLC Canada Lands Company
CMFSP Canada Manitoba Farm Stewardship Program
CMHA Canada Mortgage and Housing Association
CMHC Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
CNWG Canada News Wire Group
COP Canada Olympic Park
CPPD Canada Pension Plan Disability
CPRA Canada Petroleum Resources Act
COPILOT Canada Post
CPSR Canada Prairie Spring Red
CPNP Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program
CPSSRB Canada Public Service Staff Relations Board
CSBFA Canada Small Business Financing Act
CSBFL Canada Small Business Financing Loan
CSBF Canada Small Business Financing Program
CSEARHAP Canada South East Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Programme
CSFAA Canada Student Financial Assistance Act
CSGVP Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating
CTWM Canada Toronto West Mission
CTSA Canada Transpacific Stabilization Agreement
CWBMA Canada Well Being Measurement Act
CWDA Canada West Doorslammers Association
CWHIC Canada West Health Innovation Council
CWES Canada Western Extra Strong
CWRW Canada Western Red Winter
CWSWS Canada Western Soft White Spring
CWWM Canada Western White Multipurpose
CWYS Canada World Youth
CAPLA Canada, Asia-Pacific, Latin-America
CFCF Canada’s First, Canada’s Finest
CNHS Canada’s National History Society
CNTM Canada’s Next Top Model
CVCA Canada’s Venture Capital and Private Equity Association
CYAP Canada’s Year of Asia Pacific
CCRCC Canada-Czech Republic Chamber of Commerce
CDUT Canada-Deline Uranium Table
CIC Canada-Israel Committee
CIFTA Canada-Israel Free Trade Agreement
CIISHE Canada-Israel Institute for Sport and Health Education
CJTC Canada-Japan Trade Council
CMAAS Canada-Manitoba Agreement on Agricultural Sustainability
CNLOPB Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board
CNBSC Canada-Nunavut Business Service Centre
CRDP Canada-Russia Disability Program
CUDSS Canada-United Kingdom Deep Submillimeter Survey
CAN-US Canada-United States
CAMMAC Canadian Amateur Musicians Musiciens Amateurs du Canada
CLC-CTC Canadian Labour Congress/Congres du travail du Canada
CRC Canadian Rehab Consultants Inc. (Toronto, ON, Canada
XAW Capreol, Ontario, Canada – Capreol / via Rail Service
XZB Casselman, Ontario, Canada – Casselman / via Rail Service
CFRC Casting for Recovery Canada
CCFP Certificant of the College of Family Practice of Canada
XHS Chemainus, British Columbia, Canada – Chemainus / via Rail Service
CIC Chemical Institute of Canada
CCSEP China-Canada Scholars’ Exchange Program
CVMC Christian Veterinary Missions of Canada
CDICS Chronic Diseases In Canada
CCEL CITIC Canada Energy Limited
CIC Citizenship and Immigration Canada
CIC Citoyenneté et Immigration Canada
CITAC Clinician Investigator Trainee Association of Canada
CZCA Coastal Zone Canada Association
CMFC Collège des Médecins de Famille du Canada
CI Commissariat à l’Information du Canada
CANADA Commission du Droit d’Auteur Canada
CRC Communications Research Centre Canada
CPC-M-L Communist Party of Canada
CHICA Community and Hospital Infection Control Association Canada
CRFC Community Radio Fund of Canada
CC Companion of the Order of Canada
CBWC Congress of Black Women of Canada
CHFC Cooperative Housing Federation of Canada
CBACS Council for Business and the Arts in Canada
CMEC Council of Ministers of Education, Canada
COWAC Council on World Affairs of Canada
CCNC Creative City Network of Canada
CIC Credit Institute of Canada
CPIC Crop Protection Institute of Canada
CFSC Cubic Field Services Canada, Ltd
DFAC Department of Foreign Affairs Canada
DDACE Detroit Diesel-Allison Canada East
DEC Developpement Economique Canada
DEC Dévéloppement Économique Canada pour les Régions du Québec
DC Dietitians of Canada
DISCOUNT Disaster Aid Canada
DAC Eastern Canada Response Corporation
ECRC Economic Developers Association of Canada
EDAC Electric Mobility Canada
EMC Electric Vehicle Association of Canada
EVAC Electric Vehicle Society of Canada
EVSC Electronic Commerce Council of Canada
ECCC Electronic Product Stewardship Canada
EPSC Engineering Institute of Canada
EIC English School of Canada
ESC Entomological Society of Canada
ESC Entraide Universitaire Mondiale du Canada
EUMC Environment Canada
ECUADOR Environment Canada
ECONOMICS Environment Canada
EC Epilepsy Canada
ECUADOR Epilepsy Canada
ECONOMICS Epilepsy Canada
EC Ernest Leitz of Canada
ELCAN Europe, Canada, Latin America
ECLA Evangelical Christian Church in Canada
ECCC Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada
ELCIC Exotic Dancers’ Association of Canada
EDAC Exxon Mobil Canada Ltd
EMC Family Physician Airways Group of Canada
FPAGC Federated Women’s Institutes of Canada
FWIC Fédération des étudiants et des étudiantes en médecine du Canada
FEMC Fellow of College of Family Physicians of Canada
FCFP Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
FRCPC Financial Consumer Agency of Canada
FCAC Fisheries Research Board of Canada
FRBC Friends of Makerere in Canada
FOMAC General Motors of Canada Limited
GMCL General Motors of Canada Ltd.
GMCL Geographical Names Board of Canada
GNBC Geomatics Industry Association of Canada
GIAC Ghana-Canada Association of British Columbia
GCABC Girl Guides Of Canada
GGOC Girls Incorporated of Upper Canada
GIUC Global Forest Watch Canada
GFWC Goldman Sachs Canada, Inc.
GSCI Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Canada
GOAC Guelph, Ontario, Canada – Guelph / via Rail Service
XIA Halifax Regional CAP Association (Canada)
HRCAP Health Partners International of Canada
HPIC Healthcare Business Woman’s Association of Canada
HBAC Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
HSF Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Contractors of Canada
HRAC Hepatitis C Society of Canada
HECSC Historical Automobile Society of Canada
HASC Honda Canada Finance, Inc
HCFI Houston, British Columbia, Canada
ZHO Human Resources and Development Canada
HRDC Human Rights Institute of Canada
HRIC Hungarian Research Institute of Canada
HRIC Hunt Oil Company of Canada
HOCC Husband in Canada, Boyfriend in America
HICBIA Incorporated Militia of Upper Canada
IMUC Independent Financial Brokers of Canada
IFBC Indian Oil and Gas Canada
IOGC Indo-Canada Chamber of Commerce
ICCC Indonesian Buddhist Fellowship of Canada
IBFC Injured Workers All Across Canada
IWAAC Institut National du Cancer du Canada
INCC Institute of Certified Management Consultants of Canada
ICMCC Institute of Professional Bookkeepers of Canada
IPBC Institutional Locksmiths Organization of Canada
ILOC International Institute for FRP in Construction (Canada)
IIFC Inuit Circumpolar Conference Canada
ICCC Ireland Canada University Foundation
ICUF IT Professional Assurance Lab (Canada)
ITPAL Jonquiere, Quebec, Canada – Jonquiere / via Rail Service
XJQ Kapuskasing, Ontario, Canada
YYU Kapuskasing, Ontario, Canada
YYU-2 Kidney Foundation of Canada
KFOC Kodak Graphic Communications Canada Company
KGCCC Kurdish Youth Association of Canada
KYAC La Cañada Flintridge Educational Foundation
LCFEF La Cañada High School
LCHS Labrador Retriever Club of Canada
LRCC Law Reform Commission of Canada
LRCC Leukemia-Lymphoma Society of Canada
LLSC Liberal Party of Canada
LPC Liberal Party of Canada
LPCO Liberal Party of Canada in Québec
LPCQ Libertarian Party of Canada
LPOC Libertarian Party of Canada
LPC Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada
LMCC Light Aircraft Manufacturers Association of Canada
LAMAC Little People of Canada
LPC Luggage, Leathergoods, Handbags, and Accessories Association of Canada
LLHA Magazine Association of Canada
MACINTOSH Managers Association of Financial Advisors of Canada
MAFAC Measurement Canada
MC Member of the Order of Canada
CM Member Of The Order Of Canada
COMMENTARY Mennonite Church Canada
MCCANADA Mid-Canada Identification Zone
MIDIZ Mid-Canada Radar Line
MCRL Mid-Canada Television
MCTV Mineralogical Association of Canada
MACINTOSH Mines Action Canada
MACINTOSH Mining Association of Canada
MCSC Missing Children Society of Canada
MACINTOSH Mothers Against Canada
MACINTOSH Muslim Association of Canada
NBOC National Ballet of Canada
NBHAC National Barrel Horse Association of Canada
NBCC National Building Code of Canada
NDCFC National Downhill Cycling Foundation of Canada
NLCE National Library of Canada English
NSAC National Sunflower Association of Canada
NEFC Native Evangelical Fellowship of Canada
NWAC Native Women’s Association of Canada
NCTI NAV Canada Training Institute
XEM New Richmond, Quebec, Canada – New Richmond / via Rail Service
NNCI Novo Nordisk Canada Inc.
OPIC Office de la Propriete Intellectuelle du Canada
OC Officer of the Order of Canada
OPRP OHIP Payment Review Program (Canada)
OOCC Olive Oil Council of Canada
OC Order of Canada
OACC Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada
PLIX Pacific Littoral ISR Experiment (Canada)
PPAC Pacific Pilotage Authority Canada
PRCC Pacific Rim College Canada
PAC Packaging Association of Canada
PSC Paralegal Society of Canada
PAC Partenariat Afrique Canada
PAC Partnership Africa Canada
PAC Patients’ Association of Canada
PUGS PC Users Group of Salt Spring (Canada)
PAC Pediatric AIDS Canada
PICNIC Pediatric Investigator Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada
PSCC Pediatric Surgical Chiefs of Canada
PAOC Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada
PWAC Periodical Writers Association of Canada
PIJAC Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council of Canada
PCOG Petro Canada Oil and Gas
PHRCC Petroleum Human Resources Council of Canada
PEBC Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada
PCDF Philippines-Canada Development Fund
PAC Pilots Association of Canada
PPCA Pirate Party of Canada
PAC Planetarium Association of Canada
PFMAC Plastic Film Manufacturers Association of Canada
XPX Pointe-Aux-Trembles, Quebec, Canada – Pointe Aux Trembles / via Rail Service
PNIC Poker Nuts in Canada
PFIC Pole Dance for Fitness Instruction Commission of Canada
PPIC Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada
PWAC Professional Writers Association of Canada
PPAC Promotional Products Association of Canada
PGAC Propane Gas Association of Canada
PAC Public Archives of Canada
PSC Public Safety Canada
RUDP RADARSAT User Development Program (Canada)
RPEC Recyclage des Produits Electroniques Canada
RFFC Red Fridays Foundation of Canada
YRLS Red Lake, Ontario, Canada
RCACC Regional Community Airports Coalition of Canada
ROMC Register of Merit Canada
RFCC Registry of the Federal Court of Canada
RPSC Renaissance Performance Systems of Canada, Inc.
RFOC Residential Funding of Canada
RCAP Restricted Canada Air Pilot
RICS ROS /Item Client System (Public Works and Government Services Canada)
RBCDS Royal Bank of Canada – Dominion Securities
RBCI Royal Bank of Canada Investments
RHC Royal Highlanders of Canada
RMCC Royal Military College of Canada
RPSC Royal Philatelic Society of Canada
RSOC Royal Society of Canada
SOCCI Saab Owners Club of Canada Inc.
SPECIALIST Samaritan’s Purse Canada
SCCSC Shenzhen Concord College of Sino-Canada
SCNS Skate Canada Nova Scotia
SCNC Ski Combiné Nordique Canada
SEPAC Small Explorers and Producers Association of Canada
SDAC Soap and Detergent Association of Canada
SPECIALIST Socialist Party of Canada
SAHC Société d’Angioédème Héréditaire du Canada
SADC Societé d’Assurances-Dépôts du Canada
SOCAN Society of Composers, Authors and Music Publishers of Canada
SRPC Society of Rural Physicians of Canada
STARFIRE Speculative Fiction Canada
SF Speculative Fiction Canada
SMSCC Sports Medicine and Science Council of Canada
SLCSF Sri Lanka-Canada Scholarship Foundation
CYJT Stephenville, NF, Canada – Stephenville International Airport
YSFS Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, Canada – Stony Rapids
SCCD Supreme Court of Canada Decisions
SDTC Sustainable Development Technology Canada
SACC Syndicat des Agents Correctionnels du Canada
TESOC Tamil Eelam Society of Canada
TC Teamsters Canada
TOCL Technip Offshore Canada Limited
TC Telecommunities Canada
TC Telefilm Canada
TTMAC Terrazzo, Tile & Marble Association of Canada
TCTP Thailand Canada Telecentre Project
TKFC The Kidney Foundation of Canada
TRAAC Therapeutic Recreation Association of Atlantic Canada
YOUTH Thompson, Manitoba, Canada – Thompson
TRACC Tire Recycling Atlantic Canada Corporation
TTCS Trade Team Canada Sectors
TCTO Trans Canada Trail Ontario
TC Translogistique Canada
TC Transport Canada
TCRN Transport Canada Registration Number
TSB Transportation Safety Board of Canada
TMAC Treasury Management Association of Canada
TUCE Trout Unlimited Canada Edmonton Chapter
TDRC Truck Drivers Resource Canada
TPIC Truss Plate Institute of Canada
UCET Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Toronto and Eastern Canada
UPAC Ultralight Pilots Association of Canada
UCRCC Undocumented Convention Refugees in Canada Class
UISER UNESCO Institute for Statistics (Quebec, Canada)
UAJAPPFI United Association of Journeymen & Apprentices of the Plumbing & Pipe Fitting Industry of the US and Canada
UHCC United Hindu Congress Canada
USCFTA United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement
UUCL United Utilities Canada Limited
UT Unitrade Specialized Canada Catalog
UT-2 Unitrade Specialized Canada Catalog
UCL Univac Canada, Ltd.
UNCA UtiliCorp Networks Canada Alberta, Ltd.
VOIC Vegetable Oil Industry of Canada
VICC Vehicle Information Center of Canada
VADC Veteran Agility Dog of Canada
VCEP Vietnam Canada Environmental Project
VRSC Visual Researchers’ Society of Canada
VCCC Volvo Cars of Canada Corp.
WMCC Waste Management of Canada Corporation
WCBT West Canada Bike Tours
WCAN Western Canada Airsoft Network
WCCBA Western Canada Charter Boat Association
WCTD Western Canada Tire Dealers
WCWC Western Canada Wilderness Committee
WD Western Economic Development Canada
WD Western Economic Diversification Canada
WRWC Wildlife Reserve of Western Canada
WHISCA Willing Hearts International Society Canada
WJCC Won Ji Canada Corporation
WUSC World University Service of Canada
WWFC World Wildlife Fund Canada
WGC Writers Guild of Canada
XCT Xbox Canada Tournaments
XCC Xstrata Canada Corporation
YTCC Youth Tourism Consortium of Canada
YVCC Youth Volunteer Corps of Canada
ZOC Zionist Organization of Canada


The country’s geography is very diverse, and several of Canada’s conservation areas are on UNESCO’s World Heritage list. The country can be roughly divided into seven areas, with different landscapes and climates. Canada has a total coastline of 96 089 km, the longest in the world. The country is divided into ten provinces and three major territories.

Canada has several mountain ranges, including the Appalachian Mountains, Rocky Mountains and Coastal Mountains. The largest waterways are the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes in the south, where the famous Niagara Falls are located. The Canadian shield, which covers almost half of the country’s area, is seen as the core of the North American continent. This is a mountainous area of ​​rivers, which provides the basis for the country’s hydropower production. The large prairie areas of the Midwest are used for agriculture. Tundra in the north, and areas of ice all year round, form Arctic Canada.

Canada’s environmental problems have long been pollution and acid rain. There are a number of problems associated with the extraction of oil sands. For example, toxins such as arsenic and mercury have leaked into rivers. Overfishing in the 1990s threatened several species, and fish stocks have not yet reached the same level as in 1980. Global warming means that fewer sea areas are ice covered, and researchers also warn that forest fires could become a threat in the future because of dry weather.


The first people came to the country along a land bridge over the Bering Strait, between Russia and Alaska, about 30,000 years ago. The Inuit people’s ancestors spread over the northern areas.

Englishmen discovered Canada in the late 15th century. French expeditions hit the ground, and the first French colony, New France, was created in 1604. The colonists’ conquests, and new diseases, caused the number of foreigners to decline rapidly. In 1755, the seven-year war broke out, between the French and British colonists, which led to Canada coming under British rule. Canada was divided into two areas: the Protestant English Upper Canada and the Catholic French Lower Canada. A rebellion led to Upper and Lower Canada being merged into the province of Canada in 1840. The British decided to establish a federal state with their own parliament and at the same time gained autonomy, as the first colony in the British Commonwealth

Canada became a member of the League of Nations in 1919, taking full control of its own affairs in 1926. In the 1931 Westminster Treaty, the United Kingdom confirmed that its parliament no longer had any power over Canada. The Nunavut Territory was established in 1999; Inuit then gained autonomy in one fifth of Canada’s area.

Society and politics

Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal state. Power is shared between a federal government and ten state governments with a high degree of internal self-government. The British monarch is the head of state, represented in the country by a Governor General. The executive power lies with the prime minister and the government. Parliament has the legislative power and consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Canada has a parliamentary system, which means that the government is based on the majority in parliament. Government power in Canada alternates between the Liberal Party and various Conservative parties.

Canada is one of the most developed countries in the world, but has in recent years fallen on the UN rankings, due to increasing pay gaps. Many indigenous people live in poverty and depend on government contributions. The unemployment rate for the indigenous population is twice as high as for the rest of the population, and the level of wages is considerably lower. Important political issues are therefore to improve the conditions of the indigenous people, and to reduce the differences between the poor and the rich. Terrorism legislation has also been a contentious issue, as many believe it is a threat to freedom of expression and legal certainty.

The French-speaking province of Québec has long had a strong desire for independence. The wish led to a referendum in 1980 and 1995, but until now the area has remained part of Canada.

Economics and Commerce

Canada is a prosperous country and has large amounts of natural resources, a well-educated workforce and high-tech industry. About ten percent of the world’s forests are located in Canada, and the country has vast mineral resources such as gold, nickel, uranium and lead. Traditionally, the forest, oil, gas and mining industries, as well as fishing, have been important trade routes, but the importance of these industries is diminishing. The service sector has become the most important part of the economy, employing four out of five Canadians. Agriculture still plays an important role, even though only one percent work in the industry.

Unemployment has gradually declined since the financial crisis, and is now at its lowest level since the 1970s. However, there are large regional differences, and unemployment among young people is high.

Due to a relatively small domestic market, foreign trade has always been important to the Canadian economy. Mining and oil and gas extraction still generate large export revenues. The United States is Canada’s most important trading partner, followed by China. With the NAFTA Free Trade Agreement, trade with Mexico has become increasingly important.